Articles

AA21-048A: AppleJeus: Analysis of North Korea’s Cryptocurrency Malware

Original release date: February 17, 2021

Summary

This Advisory uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&CK®) framework. See the ATT&CK for Enterprise for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.

This joint advisory is the result of analytic efforts among the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and the Department of Treasury (Treasury) to highlight the cyber threat to cryptocurrency posed by North Korea, formally known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and provide mitigation recommendations. Working with U.S. government partners, FBI, CISA, and Treasury assess that Lazarus Group—which these agencies attribute to North Korean state-sponsored advanced persistent threat (APT) actors—is targeting individuals and companies, including cryptocurrency exchanges and financial service companies, through the dissemination of cryptocurrency trading applications that have been modified to include malware that facilitates theft of cryptocurrency.

These cyber actors have targeted organizations for cryptocurrency theft in over 30 countries during the past year alone. It is likely that these actors view modified cryptocurrency trading applications as a means to circumvent international sanctions on North Korea—the applications enable them to gain entry into companies that conduct cryptocurrency transactions and steal cryptocurrency from victim accounts. As highlighted in FASTCash 2.0: North Korea’s BeagleBoyz Robbing Banks and Guidance on the North Korean Cyber Threat, North Korea’s state-sponsored cyber actors are targeting cryptocurrency exchanges and accounts to steal and launder hundreds of millions of dollars in cryptocurrency.[1][2][3] The U.S. Government refers to malicious cyber activity by the North Korean government as HIDDEN COBRA. For more information on HIDDEN COBRA activity, visit https://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/northkorea.

The U.S. Government has identified malware and indicators of compromise (IOCs) used by the North Korean government to facilitate cryptocurrency thefts; the cybersecurity community refers to this activity as “AppleJeus.” This report catalogues AppleJeus malware in detail. North Korea has used AppleJeus malware posing as cryptocurrency trading platforms since at least 2018. In most instances, the malicious application—seen on both Windows and Mac operating systems—appears to be from a legitimate cryptocurrency trading company, thus fooling individuals into downloading it as a third-party application from a website that seems legitimate. In addition to infecting victims through legitimate-looking websites, HIDDEN COBRA actors also use phishing, social networking, and social engineering techniques to lure users into downloading the malware.

Refer to the following Malware Analysis Reports (MARs) for full technical details of AppleJeus malware and associated IOCs.

Click here for a PDF version of this report.

Technical Details

The North Korean government has used multiple versions of AppleJeus since the malware was initially discovered in 2018. This section outlines seven of the versions below. The MARs listed above provide further technical details of these versions. Initially, HIDDEN COBRA actors used websites that appeared to host legitimate cryptocurrency trading platforms to infect victims with AppleJeus; however, these actors are now also using other initial infection vectors, such as phishing, social networking, and social engineering techniques, to get users to download the malware.

Targeted Nations

HIDDEN COBRA actors have targeted institutions with AppleJeus malware in several sectors, including energy, finance, government, industry, technology, and telecommunications. Since January 2020, the threat actors have targeted these sectors in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, and the United States (figure 1).

 


 
Figure 1: Countries targeted with AppleJeus by HIDDEN COBRA threat actors since 2020

AppleJeus Versions Note

The version numbers used for headings in this document correspond to the order the AppleJeus campaigns were identified in open source or through other investigative means. These versions may or may not be in the correct order to develop or deploy the AppleJeus campaigns.

AppleJeus Version 1: Celas Trade Pro

Introduction and Infrastructure

In August 2018, open-source reporting disclosed information about a trojanized version of a legitimate cryptocurrency trading application on an undisclosed victim’s computer. The malicious program, known as Celas Trade Pro, was a modified version of the benign Q.T. Bitcoin Trader application. This incident led to the victim company being infected with a Remote Administration Tool (RAT) known as FALLCHILL, which was attributed to North Korea (HIDDEN COBRA) by the U.S. Government. FALLCHILL is a fully functional RAT with multiple commands that the adversary can issue from a command and control (C2) server to infected systems via various proxies. FALLCHILL typically infects a system as a file dropped by other HIDDEN COBRA malware (Develop Capabilities: Malware [T1587.001]). Because of this, additional HIDDEN COBRA malware may be present on systems compromised with FALLCHILL.[4]

Further research revealed that a phishing email from a Celas LLC company (Phishing: Spearphishing Link [T1566.002]) recommended the trojanized cryptocurrency trading application to victims. The email provided a link to the Celas’ website, celasllc[.]com (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]), where the victim could download a Windows or macOS version of the trojanized application.

The celasllc[.]com domain resolved to the following Internet Protocol (IP) addresses from May 29, 2018, to January 23, 2021.

  • 45.199.63[.]220
  • 107.187.66[.]103
  • 145.249.106[.]19
  • 175.29.32[.]160
  • 185.142.236[.]213
  • 185.181.104[.]82
  • 198.251.83[.]27
  • 208.91.197[.]46
  • 209.99.64[.]18

The celasllc[.]com domain had a valid Sectigo (previously known as Comodo) Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence.

Celas Trade Pro Application Analysis

Windows Program

The Windows version of the malicious Celas Trade Pro application is an MSI Installer (.msi). The MSI Installer installation package comprises a software component and an application programming interface (API) that Microsoft uses for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software. The installer looks legitimate and is signed by a valid Sectigo certificate that was purchased by the same user as the SSL certificate for celasllc[.]com (Obtain Capabilities: Code Signing Certificates [T1588.003]). The MSI Installer asks the victim for administrative privileges to run (User Execution: Malicious File [T1204.002]).

Once permission is granted, the threat actor is able to run the program with elevated privileges (Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism [T1548]) and MSI executes the following actions.

  • Installs CelasTradePro.exe in folder C:Program Files (x86)CelasTradePro
  • Installs Updater.exe in folder C:Program Files (x86)CelasTradePro
  • Runs Updater.exe with the CheckUpdate parameters

The CelasTradePro.exe program asks for the user’s exchange and loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading platform—very similar to the benign Q.T. Bitcoin Trader—that exhibits no signs of malicious activity.

The Updater.exe program has the same program icon as CelasTradePro.exe. When run, it checks for the CheckUpdate parameter, collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), encrypts the collected information with a hardcoded XOR encryption, and sends information to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer that has a disk image format that Apple commonly uses to distribute software over the internet. The installer looks legitimate and has a valid digital signature from Sectigo (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). It has very similar functionality to the Windows version. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs CelasTradePro in folder /Applications/CelasTradePro.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Installs Updater in folder /Applications/CelasTradePro.app/Contents/MacOS
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Moves .com.celastradepro.plist to folder LaunchDaemons
    • Runs Updater with the CheckUpdate parameter

CelasTradePro asks for the user’s exchange and loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading platform—very similar to the benign Q.T. Bitcoin Trader—that exhibits no signs of malicious activity.

Updater checks for the CheckUpdate parameter and, when found, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), encrypts the collected information with a hardcoded XOR key before exfiltration, and sends the encrypted information to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]). This process helps the adversary obtain persistence on a victim’s network.

The postinstall script is a sequence of instructions that runs after successfully installing an application (Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript [T1059.002]). This script moves property list (plist) file .com.celastradepro.plist from the installer package to the LaunchDaemons folder (Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd [T1053.004]). The leading “.” makes it unlisted in the Finder app or default Terminal directory listing (Hide Artifacts: Hidden Files and Directories [T1564.001]). Once in the folder, this property list (plist) file will launch the Updater program with the CheckUpdate parameter on system load as Root for every user. Because the LaunchDaemon will not run automatically after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script launches the Updater program with the CheckUpdate parameter and runs it in the background (Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon [T1543.004]).

Payload

After a cybersecurity company published a report detailing the above programs and their malicious extras, the website was no longer accessible. Since this site was the C2 server, the payload cannot be confirmed. The cybersecurity company that published the report states the payload was an encrypted and obfuscated binary (Obfuscated Files or Information [T1027]), which eventually drops FALLCHILL onto the machine and installs it as a service (Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]). FALLCHILL malware uses an RC4 encryption algorithm with a 16-byte key to protect its communications (Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography [T1573.001]). The key employed in these versions has also been used in a previous version of FALLCHILL.[5][6]

For more details on AppleJeus Version 1: Celas Trade Pro, see MAR-10322463-1.v1.

AppleJeus Version 2: JMT Trading

Introduction and Infrastructure

In October 2019, a cybersecurity company identified a new version of the AppleJeus malware—JMT Trading—thanks to its many similarities to the original AppleJeus malware. Again, the malware was in the form of a cryptocurrency trading application, which a legitimate-looking company, called JMT Trading, marketed and distributed on their website, jmttrading[.]org (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]). This website contained a “Download from GitHub” button, which linked to JMT Trading’s GitHub page (Acquire Infrastructure: Web Services [T1583.006]), where Windows and macOS X versions of the JMT Trader application were available for download (Develop Capabilities: Malware [T1587.001]). The GitHub page also included .zip and tar.gz files containing the source code.

The jmttrading[.]org domain resolved to the following IP addresses from October 15, 2016, to January 22, 2021.

  • 45.33.2[.]79
  • 45.33.23[.]183
  • 45.56.79[.]23
  • 45.79.19[.]196
  • 96.126.123[.]244
  • 146.112.61[.]107
  • 184.168.221[.]40
  • 184.168.221[.]57
  • 198.187.29[.]20
  • 198.54.117[.]197
  • 198.54.117[.]198
  • 198.54.117[.]199
  • 198.54.117[.]200
  • 198.58.118[.]167

The jmttrading[.]org domain had a valid Sectigo SSL certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence. The current SSL certificate was issued by Let’s Encrypt.

JMT Trading Application Analysis

Windows Program

The Windows version of the malicious cryptocurrency application is an MSI Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has a valid digital signature from Sectigo (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The signature was signed with a code signing certificate purchased by the same user as the SSL certificate for jmttrading[.]org (Obtain Capabilities: Code Signing Certificates [T1588.003]). The MSI Installer asks the victim for administrative privileges to run (User Execution: Malicious File [T1204.002]).

Once permission is granted, the MSI executes the following actions.

  • Installs JMTTrader.exe in folder C:Program Files (x86)JMTTrader
  • Installs CrashReporter.exe in folder C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingJMTTrader
  • Runs CrashReporter.exe with the Maintain parameter

The JMTTrader.exe program asks for the user’s exchange and loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading platform—very similar to CelasTradePro.exe and the benign Q.T. Bitcoin Trader—that exhibits no signs of malicious activity.

The program CrashReporter.exe is heavily obfuscated with the ADVObfuscation library, renamed “snowman” (Obfuscated Files or Information [T1027]). When run, it checks for the Maintain parameter and collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), encrypts the collected information with a hardcoded XOR key before exfiltration, and sends the encrypted information to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]). The program also creates a scheduled SYSTEM task, named JMTCrashReporter, which runs CrashReporter.exe with the Maintain parameter at any user’s login (Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task [T1053.005]).

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has very similar functionality to the Windows version, but it does not have a digital certificate and will warn the user of that before installation. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs JMTTrader in folder /Applications/JMTTrader.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Installs .CrashReporter in folder /Applications/JMTTrader.app/Contents/Resources/
    • Note: the leading “.” makes it unlisted in the Finder app or default Terminal directory listing.
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Moves .com.jmttrading.plist to folder LaunchDaemons
    • Changes the file permissions on the plist
    • Runs CrashReporter with the Maintain parameter
    • Moves .CrashReporter to folder /Library/JMTTrader/CrashReporter
    • Makes .CrashReporter executable

The JMTTrader program asks for the user’s exchange and loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading platform—very similar to CelasTradePro and the benign Q.T. Bitcoin Trader—that exhibits no signs of malicious activity.

The CrashReporter program checks for the Maintain parameter and is not obfuscated. This lack of obfuscation makes it easier to determine the program’s functionality in detail. When it finds the Maintain parameter, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), encrypts the collected information with a hardcoded XOR key before exfiltration, and sends the encrypted information to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

The postinstall script has similar functionality to the one used by CelasTradePro, but it has a few additional features (Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript [T1059.002]). It moves the property list (plist) file .com.jmttrading.plist from the Installer package to the LaunchDaemons folder (Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd [T1053.004]), but also changes the file permissions on the plist file. Once in the folder, this property list (plist) file will launch the CrashReporter program with the Maintain parameter on system load as Root for every user. Also, the postinstall script moves the .CrashReporter program to a new location /Library/JMTTrader/CrashReporter and makes it executable. Because the LaunchDaemon will not run automatically after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script launches CrashReporter with the Maintain parameter and runs it in the background (Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon [T1543.004]).

Payload

Soon after the cybersecurity company tweeted about JMT Trader on October 11, 2019, the files on GitHub were updated to clean, non-malicious installers. Then on October 13, 2019, a different cybersecurity company published an article detailing the macOS X JMT Trader, and soon after, the C2 beastgoc[.]com website went offline. There is not a confirmed sample of the payload to analyze at this point.

For more details on AppleJeus Version 2: JMT Trading, see MAR-10322463-2.v1.

AppleJeus Version 3: Union Crypto

Introduction and Infrastructure

In December 2019, another version of the AppleJeus malware was identified on Twitter by a cybersecurity company based on many similarities to the original AppleJeus malware. Again, the malware was in the form of a cryptocurrency trading application, which was marketed and distributed by a legitimate-looking company, called Union Crypto, on their website, unioncrypto[.]vip (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]). Although this website is no longer available, a cybersecurity researcher discovered a download link, https://www.unioncrypto[.]vip/download/W6c2dq8By7luMhCmya2v97YeN, recorded on VirusTotal for the macOS X version of UnionCryptoTrader. In contrast, open-source reporting stated that the Windows version might have been downloaded via instant messaging service Telegram, as it was found in a “Telegram Downloads” folder on an unnamed victim.[7]

The unioncrypto[.]vip domain resolved to the following IP addresses from June 5, 2019, to July 15, 2020.

  • 104.168.167[.]16
  • 198.54.117[.]197
  • 198.54.117[.]198
  • 198.54.117[.]199
  • 198.54.117[.]200

The domain unioncrypto[.]vip had a valid Sectigo SSL certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence.

Union Crypto Trader Application Analysis

Windows Program

The Windows version of the malicious cryptocurrency application is a Windows executable (.exe) (User Execution: Malicious File [T1204.002]), which acts as an installer that extracts a temporary MSI Installer.

The Windows program executes the following actions.

  • Extracts UnionCryptoTrader.msi to folder C:Users<username>AppDataLocalTemp{82E4B719-90F74BD1-9CF1-56CD777E0C42}
  • Runs UnionCryptoUpdater.msi
    • Installs UnionCryptoTrader.exe in folder C:Program FilesUnionCryptoTrader
    • Installs UnionCryptoUpdater.exe in folder C:Users<username>AppDataLocalUnionCryptoTrader
  • Deletes UnionCryptoUpdater.msi
  • Runs UnionCryptoUpdater.exe

The program UnionCryptoTrader.exe loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency arbitrage application—defined as “the simultaneous buying and selling of securities, currency, or commodities in different markets or in derivative forms to take advantage of differing prices for the same asset”—which exhibits no signs of malicious activity. This application is very similar to another cryptocurrency arbitrage application known as Blackbird Bitcoin Arbitrage.[8]

The program UnionCryptoUpdater.exe first installs itself as a service (Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]), which will automatically start when any user logs on (Boot or Logon Autostart Execution [T1547]). The service is installed with a description stating it “Automatically installs updates for Union Crypto Trader.” When launched, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), combines the information in a string that is MD5 hashed and stored in the auth_signature variable before exfiltration, and sends it to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has very similar functionality to the Windows version, but it does not have a digital certificate and will warn the user of that before installation. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs UnionCryptoTrader in folder /Applications/UnionCryptoTrader.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Installs .unioncryptoupdater in folder /Applications/UnionCryptoTrader.app/Contents/Resources/
    • Note: the leading “.” makes it unlisted in the Finder app or default Terminal directory listing
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Moves .vip.unioncrypto.plist to folder LaunchDaemons
    • Changes the file permissions on the plist to Root
    • Runs unioncryptoupdater
    • Moves .unioncryptoupdater to folder /Library/UnionCrypto/unioncryptoupdater
    • Makes .unioncryptoupdater executable

The UnionCryptoTrader program loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency arbitrage application, which exhibits no signs of malicious activity. The application is very similar to another cryptocurrency arbitrage application known as Blackbird Bitcoin Arbitrage.

The .unioncryptoupdater program is signed ad-hoc, meaning it is not signed with a valid code-signing identity. When launched, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), combines the information in a string that is MD5 hashed and stored in the auth_signature variable before exfiltration, and sends it to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

The postinstall script has similar functionality to the one used by JMT Trading (Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript [T1059.002]). It moves the property list (plist) file .vip.unioncrypto.plist from the Installer package to the LaunchDaemons folder (Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd [T1053.004]), but also changes the file permissions on the plist file to Root. Once in the folder, this property list (plist) file will launch the .unioncryptoupdater on system load as Root for every user. The postinstall script moves the .unioncryptoupdater program to a new location /Library/UnionCrypto/unioncryptoupdater and makes it executable. Because the LaunchDaemon will not run automatically after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script launches .unioncryptoupdater and runs it in the background (Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon [T1543.004]).

Payload

The payload for the Windows malware is a Windows Dynamic-Link-Library. UnionCryptoUpdater.exe does not immediately download the stage 2 malware but instead downloads it after a time specified by the C2 server. This delay could be implemented to prevent researchers from directly obtaining the stage 2 malware.

The macOS X malware’s payload could not be downloaded, as the C2 server is no longer accessible. Additionally, none of the open-source reporting for this sample contained copies of the macOS X payload. The macOS X payload is likely similar in functionality to the Windows stage 2 detailed above.

For more details on AppleJeus Version 3: Union Crypto, see MAR-10322463-3.v1.

Commonalities between Celas Trade Pro, JMT Trading, and Union Crypto

Hardcoded Values

In each AppleJeus version, there are hardcoded values used for encryption or to create a signature when combined with the time (table 1).

Table 1: AppleJeus hardcoded values and uses

AppleJeus Version Value Use
1: Celas Trade Pro Moz&Wie;#t/6T!2y XOR encryption to send data
1: Celas Trade Pro W29ab@ad%Df324V$Yd RC4 decryption
2: JMT Trader Windows X,%`PMk–Jj8s+6=15:20:11 XOR encryption to send data
2: JMT Trader OSX X,%`PMk–Jj8s+6=x02 XOR encryption to send data
3: Union Crypto Trader 12GWAPCT1F0I1S14 Combined with time for signature

 

The Union Crypto Trader and Celas LLC (XOR) values are 16 bytes in length. For JMT Trader, the first 16 bytes of the Windows and macOS X values are identical, and the additional bytes are in a time format for the Windows sample. The structure of a 16-byte value combined with the time is also used in Union Crypto Trader to create the auth_signature.

As mentioned, FALLCHILL was reported as the final payload for Celas Trade Pro. All FALLCHILL samples use 16-byte hardcoded RC4 keys for sending data, similar to the 16-byte keys in the AppleJeus samples.

Open-Source Cryptocurrency Applications

All three AppleJeus samples are bundled with modified copies of legitimate cryptocurrency applications and can be used as originally designed to trade cryptocurrency. Both Celas LLC and JMT Trader modified the same cryptocurrency application, Q.T. Bitcoin Trader; Union Crypto Trader modified the Blackbird Bitcoin Arbitrage application.

Postinstall Scripts, Property List Files, and LaunchDaemons

The macOS X samples of all three AppleJeus versions contain postinstall scripts with similar logic. The Celas LLC postinstall script only moves the plist file to a new location and launches Updater with the CheckUpdate parameter in the background. The JMT Trader and Union Crypto Trader also perform these actions and have identical functionality. The additional actions performed by both postinstall scripts are to change the file permissions on the plist, make a new directory in the /Library folder, move CrashReporter or UnionCryptoUpdater to the newly created folder, and make them executable.

The plist files for all three AppleJeus files have identical functionality. They only differ in the files’ names and one default comment that was not removed from the Celas LLC plist. As the logic and functionality of the postinstall scripts and plist files are almost identical, the LaunchDaemons created also function the same.

They will all launch the secondary executable as Root on system load for every user.

AppleJeus Version 4: Kupay Wallet

Introduction and Infrastructure

On March 13, 2020, a new version of the AppleJeus malware was identified. The malware was marketed and distributed by a legitimate-looking company, called Kupay Wallet, on their website kupaywallet[.]com (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]).

The domain www.kupaywallet[.]com resolved to IP address 104.200.67[.]96 from March 20, 2020, to January 16, 2021. CrownCloud US, LLC controlled the IP address (autonomous system number [ASN] 8100), and is located in New York, NY.

The domain www.kupaywallet[.]com had a valid Sectigo SSL certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence.

Kupay Wallet Application Analysis

Windows Program

The Windows version of the malicious cryptocurrency application is an MSI Installer. The MSI executes the following actions.

  • Installs Kupay.exe in folder C:Program Files (x86)Kupay
  • Installs KupayUpgrade.exe in folder C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingKupaySupport
  • Runs KupayUpgrade.exe

The program Kupay.exe loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency wallet platform, which exhibits no signs of malicious activity and is very similar to an open-source platform known as Copay, distributed by Atlanta-based company BitPay.

The program KupayUpgrade.exe first installs itself as a service (Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]), which will automatically start when any user logs on (Boot or Logon Autostart Execution [T1547]). The service is installed with a description stating it is an “Automatic Kupay Upgrade.” When launched, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), combines the information in strings before exfiltration, and sends it to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has very similar functionality to the Windows version, but it does not have a digital certificate and will warn the user of that before installation. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs Kupay in folder /Applications/Kupay.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Installs kupay_upgrade in folder /Applications/Kupay.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Creates KupayDaemon folder in /Library/Application Support folder
    • Moves kupay_upgrade to the new folder
    • Moves com.kupay.pkg.wallet.plist to folder /Library/LaunchDaemons/
    • Runs the command launchctl load to load the plist without a restart
    • Runs kupay_upgrade in the background

Kupay is likely a copy of an open-source cryptocurrency wallet application, loads a legitimate-looking wallet program (fully functional), and its functionality is identical to the Windows Kupay.exe program.

The kupay_upgrade program calls its function CheckUpdate (which contains most of the logic functionality of the malware) and sends a POST to the C2 server with a connection named “Kupay Wallet 9.0.1 (Check Update Osx)” (Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]). If the C2 server returns a file, it is decoded and written to the victim’s folder /private/tmp/kupay_update with permissions set by the command chmod 700 (only the user can read, write, and execute) (Command and Scripting Interpreter [T1059]). Stage 2 is then launched, and the malware, kupay_upgrade, returns to sleeping and checking in with the C2 server at predetermined intervals (Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]).

The postinstall script has similar functionality to other AppleJeus scripts (Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript [T1059.002]). It creates the KupayDaemon folder in /Library/Application Support folder and then moves kupay_upgrade to the new folder. It moves the property list (plist) file com.kupay.pkg.wallet.plist from the Installer package to the /Library/LaunchDaemons/ folder (Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd [T1053.004]). The script runs the command launchctl load to load the plist without a restart (Command and Scripting Interpreter [T1059]). But, since the LaunchDaemon will not run automatically after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script launches kupay_upgrade and runs it in the background (Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon [T1543.004]).

Payload

The Windows malware’s payload could not be downloaded since the C2 server is no longer accessible. Additionally, none of the open-source reporting for this sample contained copies of the payload. The Windows payload is likely similar in functionality to the macOS X stage 2 detailed below.

The stage 2 payload for the macOS X malware was decoded and analyzed. The stage 2 malware has a variety of functionalities. Most importantly, it checks in with a C2 and, after connecting to the C2, can send or receive a payload, read and write files, execute commands via the terminal, etc.

For more details on AppleJeus Version 4: Kupay Wallet, see MAR-10322463-4.v1.

AppleJeus Version 5: CoinGoTrade

Introduction and Infrastructure

In early 2020, another version of the AppleJeus malware was identified. This time the malware was marketed and distributed by a legitimate-looking company called CoinGoTrade on their website coingotrade[.]com (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]).

The domain CoinGoTrade[.]com resolved to IP address 198.54.114[.]175 from February 28, 2020, to January 23, 2021. The IP address is controlled by NameCheap Inc. (ASN 22612) and is located in Atlanta, GA. This IP address is in the same ASN for Dorusio[.]com and Ants2Whale[.]com.

The domain CoinGoTrade[.]com had a valid Sectigo SSL certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence.

CoinGoTrade Application Analysis

Windows Program

The Windows version of the malicious application is an MSI Installer. The installer appears to be legitimate and will execute the following actions.

  • Installs CoinGoTrade.exe in folder C:Program Files (x86)CoinGoTrade
  • Installs CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe in folder C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingCoinGoTradeSupport
  • Runs CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe

CoinGoTrade.exe loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency wallet platform with no signs of malicious activity and is a copy of an open-source cryptocurrency application.

CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe first installs itself as a service (Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]), which will automatically start when any user logs on (Boot or Logon Autostart Execution [T1547]). The service is installed with a description stating it is an “Automatic CoinGoTrade Upgrade.” When launched, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), combines the information in strings before exfiltration, and sends it to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has very similar functionality to the Windows version, but it does not have a digital certificate and will warn the user of that before installation. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs CoinGoTrade in folder /Applications/CoinGoTrade.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Installs CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon in folder /Applications/CoinGoTrade.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Creates CoinGoTradeService folder in /Library/Application Support folder
    • Moves CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon to the new folder
    • Moves com.coingotrade.pkg.product.plist to folder /Library/LaunchDaemons/
    • Runs CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon in the background

The CoinGoTrade program is likely a copy of an open-source cryptocurrency wallet application and loads a legitimate-looking, fully functional wallet program).

The CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon program calls its function CheckUpdate (which contains most of the logic functionality of the malware) and sends a POST to the C2 server with a connection named “CoinGoTrade 1.0 (Check Update Osx)” (Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]). If the C2 server returns a file, it is decoded and written to the victim’s folder /private/tmp/updatecoingotrade with permissions set by the command chmod 700 (only the user can read, write, and execute) (Command and Scripting Interpreter [T1059]). Stage 2 is then launched, and the malware, CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon, returns to sleeping and checking in with the C2 server at predetermined intervals (Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]).

The postinstall script has similar functionality to the other scripts (Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript [T1059.002]) and installs CoinGoTrade and CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon in folder /Applications/CoinGoTrade.app/Contents/MacOS/. It moves the property list (plist) file com.coingotrade.pkg.product.plist to the /Library/LaunchDaemons/ folder (Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd [T1053.004]). Because the LaunchDaemon will not run automatically after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script launches CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon and runs it in the background (Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon [T1543.004]).

Payload

The Windows malware’s payload could not be downloaded because the C2 server is no longer accessible. Additionally, none of the open-source reporting for this sample contained copies of the payload. The Windows payload is likely similar in functionality to the macOS X stage 2 detailed below.

The stage 2 payload for the macOS X malware was no longer available from the specified download URL. Still, a file was submitted to VirusTotal by the same user on the same date as the macOS X CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon. These clues suggest that the submitted file may be related to the macOS X version of the malware and the downloaded payload.

The file prtspool is a 64-bit Mach-O executable with a large variety of features that have all been confirmed as functionality. The file has three C2 URLs hardcoded into the file and communicates to these with HTTP POST multipart-form data boundary string. Like other HIDDEN COBRA malware, prtspool uses format strings to store data collected about the system and sends it to the C2s.

For more details on AppleJeus Version 5: CoinGoTrade, see MAR-10322463-5.v1.

AppleJeus Version 6: Dorusio

Introduction and Infrastructure

In March 2020, an additional version of the AppleJeus malware was identified. This time the malware was marketed and distributed by a legitimate-looking company called Dorusio on their website, dorusio[.]com (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]). Researchers collected samples for Windows and macOS X versions of the Dorusio Wallet (Develop Capabilities: Malware [T1587.001]). As of at least early 2020, the actual download links result in 404 errors. The download page has release notes with version revisions claiming to start with version 1.0.0, released on April 15, 2019.

The domain dorusio[.]com resolved to IP address 198.54.115[.]51 from March 30, 2020 to January 23, 2021. The IP address is controlled by NameCheap Inc. (ASN 22612) and is located in Atlanta, GA. This IP address is in the same ASN for CoinGoTrade[.]com and Ants2Whale[.]com.

The domain dorusio[.]com had a valid Sectigo SSL certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence.

Dorusio Application Analysis

Windows Program

The Windows version of the malicious application is an MSI Installer. The installer appears to be legitimate and will install the following two programs.

  • Installs Dorusio.exe in folder C:Program Files (x86)Dorusio
  • Installs DorusioUpgrade.exe in folder C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingDorusioSupport
  • Runs DorusioUpgrade.exe

The program, Dorusio.exe, loads a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency wallet platform with no signs of malicious activity and is a copy of an open-source cryptocurrency application.

The program DorusioUpgrade.exe first installs itself as a service (Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]), which will automatically start when any user logs on (Boot or Logon Autostart Execution [T1547]). The service is installed with a description stating it “Automatic Dorusio Upgrade.” When launched, it collects the victim’s host information (System Owner/User Discovery [T1033]), combines the information in strings before exfiltration, and sends it to a C2 website (Exfiltration Over C2 Channel [T1041]).

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has very similar functionality to the Windows version, but it does not have a digital certificate and will warn the user of that before installation. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs Dorusio in folder /Applications/Dorusio.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Installs Dorusio_upgrade in folder /Applications/Dorusio.app/Contents/MacOS/
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Creates DorusioDaemon folder in /Library/Application Support folder
    • Moves Dorusio_upgrade to the new folder
    • Moves com.dorusio.pkg.wallet.plist to folder /Library/LaunchDaemons/
    • Runs Dorusio_upgrade in the background

The Dorusio program is likely a copy of an open-source cryptocurrency wallet application and loads a legitimate-looking wallet program (fully functional). Aside from the Dorusio logo and two new services, the wallet appears to be the same as the Kupay Wallet. This application seems to be a modification of the open-source cryptocurrency wallet Copay distributed by Atlanta-based company BitPay.

The Dorusio_upgrade program calls its function CheckUpdate (which contains most of the logic functionality of the malware) and sends a POST to the C2 server with a connection named “Dorusio Wallet 2.1.0 (Check Update Osx)” (Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]). If the C2 server returns a file, it is decoded and written to the victim’s folder /private/tmp/Dorusio_update with permissions set by the command chmod 700 (only the user can read, write, and execute) (Command and Scripting Interpreter [T1059]). Stage 2 is then launched, and the malware, Dorusio_upgrade, returns to sleeping and checking in with the C2 server at predetermined intervals (Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]).

The postinstall script has similar functionality to other AppleJeus scripts (Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript [T1059.002]). It creates the DorusioDaemon folder in /Library/Application Support folder and then moves Dorusio_upgrade to the new folder. It moves the property list (plist) file com.dorusio.pkg.wallet.plist from the Installer package to the /Library/LaunchDaemons/ folder (Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd [T1053.004]). Because the LaunchDaemon will not run automatically after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script launches Dorusio_upgrade and runs it in the background (Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon [T1543.004]).

Payload

Neither the payload for the Windows nor macOS X malware could be downloaded; the C2 server is no longer accessible. The payloads are likely similar in functionality to the macOS X stage 2 from CoinGoTrade and Kupay Wallet, or the Windows stage 2 from Union Crypto.

For more details on AppleJeus Version 6: Dorusio, see MAR-10322463-6.v1.

AppleJeus 4, 5, and 6 Installation Conflictions

If a user attempts to install the Kupay Wallet, CoinGoTrade, and Dorusio applications on the same system, they will encounter installation conflicts.

If Kupay Wallet is already installed on a system and the user tries to install CoinGoTrade or Dorusio:

  • Pop-up windows appear, stating a more recent version of the program is already installed.

If CoinGoTrade is already installed on a system and the user attempts to install Kupay Wallet:

  • Kupay.exe will be installed in the C:Program Files (x86)CoinGoTrade folder.
  • All CoinGoTrade files will be deleted.
  • The folders and files contained in the C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingCoinGoTradeSupport will remain installed.
  • KupayUpgrade.exe is installed in the new folder C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingKupaySupport.

If Dorusio is already installed on a system and the user attempts to install Kupay Wallet:

  • Kupay.exe will be installed in the C:Program Files (x86)Dorusio folder.
  • All Dorusio.exe files will be deleted.
  • The folders and files contained in C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingDorusioSupport will remain installed.
  • KupayUpgrade.exe is installed in the new folder C:Users<username>AppDataRoamingKupaySupport.

AppleJeus Version 7: Ants2Whale

Introduction and Infrastructure

In late 2020, a new version of AppleJeus was identified called “Ants2Whale.” The site for this version of AppleJeus is ants2whale[.]com (Acquire Infrastructure: Domain [T1583.001]). The website shows a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency company and application. The website contains multiple spelling and grammar mistakes indicating the creator may not have English as a first language. The website states that to download Ants2Whale, a user must contact the administrator, as their product is a “premium package” (Develop Capabilities: Malware [T1587.001]).

The domain ants2whale[.]com resolved to IP address 198.54.114[.]237 from September 23, 2020, to January 22, 2021. The IP address is controlled by NameCheap, Inc. (ASN 22612) and is located in Atlanta, GA. This IP address is in the same ASN for CoinGoTrade[.]com and Dorusio[.]com.

The domain ants2whale[.]com had a valid Sectigo SSL certificate (Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates [T1588.004]). The SSL certificate was “Domain Control Validated,” a weak security verification level that does not require validation of the owner’s identity or the actual business’s existence.

Ants2Whale Application Analysis

Windows Program

As of late 2020, the Windows program was not available on VirusTotal. It is likely very similar to the macOS X version detailed below.

macOS X Program

The macOS version of the malicious application is a DMG Installer. The installer looks legitimate and has very similar functionality to the Windows version, but it does not have a digital certificate and will warn the user of that before installation. The installer executes the following actions.

  • Installs Ants2Whale in folder /Applications/Ants2whale.app/Contents/MacOS/Ants2whale
  • Installs Ants2WhaleHelper in folder /Library/Application Support/Ants2WhaleSupport/
  • Executes a postinstall script
    • Moves com.Ants2whale.pkg.wallet.plist to folder /Library/LaunchDaemons/
    • Runs Ants2WhaleHelper in the background

The Ants2Whale and Ants2WhaleHelper programs and the postinstall script function almost identically to previous versions of AppleJeus and will not be discussed in depth in this advisory.

For more details on AppleJeus Version 7: Ants2Whale, see MAR-10322463-7.v1.

ATT&CK Profile

Figure 2 and table 2 provide summaries of the MITRE ATT&CK techniques observed.

Figure 2: MITRE ATT&CK enterprise techniques used by AppleJeus

 

Table 2: MITRE ATT&CK techniques observed

Tactic Title Technique ID Technique Title
Resource Development [TA0042] T1583.001 Acquire Infrastructure: Domain
Resource Development [TA0042] T1583.006 Acquire Infrastructure: Web Services
Resource Development [TA0042] T1587.001 Develop Capabilities: Malware
Resource Development [TA0042] T1588.003 Obtain Capabilities: Code Signing Certificates
Resource Development [TA0042] T1588004 Obtain Capabilities: Digital Certificates
Initial Access [TA0001] T1566.002 Phishing: Spearphishing Link
Execution [TA0002] T1059 Command and Scripting Interpreter
Execution [TA0002] T1059.002 Command and Scripting Interpreter: AppleScript
Execution [TA0002] T1204.002 User Execution: Malicious File
Persistence [TA0003] T1053.004 Scheduled Task/Job: Launchd
Persistence [TA0003] T1543.004 Create or Modify System Process: Launch Daemon
Persistence [TA0003] T1547 Boot or Logon Autostart Execution
Privilege Escalation [TA0004] T1053.005 Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task
Defense Evasion [TA0005] T1027 Obfuscated Files or Information
Defense Evasion [TA0005] T1548 Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism
Defense Evasion [TA0005] T1564.001 Hide Artifacts: Hidden Files and Directories
Discovery [TA0007] T1033 System Owner/User Discovery
Exfiltration [TA0010] T1041 Exfiltration Over C2 Channel
Command and Control [TA0011] T1071.001

Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols

Command and Control [TA0011] T1573 Encrypted Channel
Command and Control [TA0011] T1573.001 Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography

Mitigations

Compromise Mitigations

Organizations that identify AppleJeus malware within their networks should take immediate action. Initial actions should include the following steps.

  • Contact the FBI, CISA, or Treasury immediately regarding any identified activity related to AppleJeus. (Refer to the Contact Information section below.)
  • Initiate your organization’s incident response plan.
  • Generate new keys for wallets, and/or move to new wallets.
  • Introduce a two-factor authentication solution as an extra layer of verification.  
  • Use hardware wallets, which keep the private keys in a separate, secured storage area.
  • To move funds out off a compromised wallet:
    • Do not use the malware listed in this advisory to transfer funds, and  
    • Form all transactions offline and then broadcast them to the network all at once in a short online session, ideally prior to the attacker accessing them.
  • Remove impacted hosts from network.
  • Assume the threat actors have moved laterally within the network and downloaded additional malware.
  • Change all passwords to any accounts associated with impacted hosts.
  • Reimage impacted host(s).  
  • Install anti-virus software to run daily deep scans of the host.
  • Ensure your anti-virus software is setup to download the latest signatures daily.
  • Install a Host Based Intrusion Detection (HIDS)-based software and keep it up to date.
  • Ensure all software and hardware is up to date, and all patches have been installed.
  • Ensure network-based firewall is installed and/or up to date.
  • Ensure the firewall’s firmware is up to date.

Pro-Active Mitigations

Consider the following recommendations for defense against AppleJeus malware and related activity.

Cryptocurrency Users

  • Verify source of cryptocurrency-related applications.
  • Use multiple wallets for key storage, striking the appropriate risk balance between hot and cold storage.
  • Use custodial accounts with multi-factor authentication mechanisms for both user and device verification.
  • Patronize cryptocurrency service businesses that offer indemnity protections for lost or stolen cryptocurrency.
  • Consider having a dedicated device for cryptocurrency management.

Financial Service Companies

Cryptocurrency Businesses

All Organizations

  • Incorporate IOCs identified in CISA’s Malware Analysis Reports on https://us-cert.cisa.gov/northkorea into intrusion detection systems and security alert systems to enable active blocking or reporting of suspected malicious activity.
  • See table 3 below, which provides a summary of preventative ATT&CK mitigations based on observed techniques.

Table 3: MITRE ATT&CK mitigations based on observed techniques

Mitigation Description
User Training [M1017] Train users to identify social engineering techniques and spearphishing emails.
User Training [M1017] Provide users with the awareness of common phishing and spearphishing techniques and raise suspicion for potentially malicious events.
User Account Management [M1018] Limit privileges of user accounts and remediate Privilege Escalation vectors so only authorized administrators can create new Launch Daemons.
User Account Management [M1018] Limit privileges of user accounts and remediate Privilege Escalation vectors so only authorized administrators can create scheduled tasks on remote systems.
SSL/TLS Inspection [M1020] Use SSL/TLS inspection to see encrypted sessions’ contents to look for network-based indicators of malware communication protocols.
Restrict Web-Based Content [M1021] Determine if certain websites that can be used for spearphishing are necessary for business operations and consider blocking access if the activity cannot be monitored well or poses a significant risk.
Restrict Web-Based Content [M1021] Block Script extensions to prevent the execution of scripts and HTA files that may commonly be used during the exploitation process.
Restrict Web-Based Content [M1021] Employ an adblocker to prevent malicious code served up through ads from executing.
Restrict File and Directory Permissions [M1022] Prevent all users from writing to the /Library/StartupItems directory to prevent any startup items from getting registered since StartupItems are deprecated.
Privileged Account Management [M1026] When PowerShell is necessary, restrict PowerShell execution policy to administrators. Be aware that there are methods of bypassing the PowerShell execution policy, depending on environment configuration.
Privileged Account Management [M1026] Configure the Increase Scheduling Priority option only to allow the Administrators group the rights to schedule a priority process.
Operating System Configuration [M1028] Configure settings for scheduled tasks to force tasks to run under the authenticated account’s context instead of allowing them to run as SYSTEM.
Network Intrusion Prevention [M1031] Use network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware and mitigate activity at the network level.
Execution Prevention [M1038] Use application control tools where appropriate.
Execution Prevention [M1038] Use application control tools to prevent the running of executables masquerading as other files.
Behavior Prevention on Endpoint [M1040] Configure endpoint (if possible) to block some process injection types based on common sequences of behavior during the injection process.
Disable or Remove Feature or Program [M1042] Disable or remove any unnecessary or unused shells or interpreters.
Code Signing [M1045] Where possible, only permit the execution of signed scripts.
Code Signing [M1045] Require that a trusted developer I.D. sign all AppleScript before being executed to subject AppleScript code to the same scrutiny as other .app files passing through Gatekeeper.
Audit [M1047] Audit logging for launchd events in macOS can be reviewed or centrally collected using multiple options, such as Syslog, OpenBSM, or OSquery.
Audit [M1047] Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges.
Antivirus/Antimalware [M1049] Use an antivirus program to quarantine suspicious files automatically.

 

Contact Information

Recipients of this report are encouraged to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat.

For any questions related to this report or to report an intrusion and request resources for incident response or technical assistance, please contact:

References

Revisions

  • February 17, 2021: Initial Version

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Source de l’article sur us-cert.gov

AA21-042A: Compromise of U.S. Water Treatment Facility

Original release date: February 11, 2021 | Last revised: February 12, 2021

Summary

On February 5, 2021, unidentified cyber actors obtained unauthorized access to the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system at a U.S. drinking water treatment facility. The unidentified actors used the SCADA system’s software to increase the amount of sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, a caustic chemical, as part of the water treatment process. Water treatment plant personnel immediately noticed the change in dosing amounts and corrected the issue before the SCADA system’s software detected the manipulation and alarmed due to the unauthorized change. As a result, the water treatment process remained unaffected and continued to operate as normal. The cyber actors likely accessed the system by exploiting cybersecurity weaknesses, including poor password security, and an outdated operating system. Early information indicates it is possible that a desktop sharing software, such as TeamViewer, may have been used to gain unauthorized access to the system, although this cannot be confirmed at present date. Onsite response to the incident included Pinellas County Sheriff Office (PCSO), U.S. Secret Service (USSS), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

The FBI, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS-ISAC) have observed cyber criminals targeting and exploiting desktop sharing software and computer networks running operating systems with end of life status to gain unauthorized access to systems. Desktop sharing software, which has multiple legitimate uses—such as enabling telework, remote technical support, and file transfers—can also be exploited through malicious actors’ use of social engineering tactics and other illicit measures. Windows 7 will become more susceptible to exploitation due to lack of security updates and the discovery of new vulnerabilities. Microsoft and other industry professionals strongly recommend upgrading computer systems to an actively supported operating system. Continuing to use any operating system within an enterprise beyond the end of life status may provide cyber criminals access into computer systems.

Click here for a PDF version of this report.

Technical Details

Desktop Sharing Software

The FBI, CISA, EPA, and MS-ISAC have observed corrupt insiders and outside cyber actors using desktop sharing software to victimize targets in a range of organizations, including those in the critical infrastructure sectors. In addition to adjusting system operations, cyber actors also use the following techniques:

  • Use access granted by desktop sharing software to perform fraudulent wire transfers.
  • Inject malicious code that allows the cyber actors to
    • Hide desktop sharing software windows,
    • Protect malicious files from being detected, and
    • Control desktop sharing software startup parameters to obfuscate their activity.
  • Move laterally across a network to increase the scope of activity.

TeamViewer, a desktop sharing software, is a legitimate popular tool that has been exploited by cyber actors engaged in targeted social engineering attacks, as well as large scale, indiscriminate phishing campaigns. Desktop sharing software can also be used by employees with vindictive and/or larcenous motivations against employers.

Beyond its legitimate uses, when proper security measures aren’t followed, remote access tools may be used to exercise remote control over computer systems and drop files onto victim computers, making it functionally similar to Remote Access Trojans (RATs). TeamViewer’s legitimate use, however, makes anomalous activity less suspicious to end users and system administrators compared to RATs.

Windows 7 End of Life

On January 14, 2020, Microsoft ended support for the Windows 7 operating system, which includes security updates and technical support unless certain customers purchased an Extended Security Update (ESU) plan. The ESU plan is paid per-device and available for Windows 7 Professional and Enterprise versions, with an increasing price the longer a customer continues use. Microsoft will only offer the ESU plan until January 2023. Continued use of Windows 7 increases the risk of cyber actor exploitation of a computer system.

Cyber actors continue to find entry points into legacy Windows operating systems and leverage Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) exploits. Microsoft released an emergency patch for its older operating systems, including Windows 7, after an information security researcher discovered an RDP vulnerability in May 2019. Since the end of July 2019, malicious RDP activity has increased with the development of a working commercial exploit for the vulnerability. Cyber actors often use misconfigured or improperly secured RDP access controls to conduct cyberattacks. The xDedic Marketplace, taken down by law enforcement in 2019, flourished by compromising RDP vulnerabilities around the world.

Mitigations

General Recommendations

The following cyber hygiene measures may help protect against the aforementioned scheme:

  • Update to the latest version of the operating system (e.g., Windows 10).
  • Use multiple-factor authentication.
  • Use strong passwords to protect Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) credentials.
  • Ensure anti-virus, spam filters, and firewalls are up to date, properly configured, and secure.
  • Audit network configurations and isolate computer systems that cannot be updated.
  • Audit your network for systems using RDP, closing unused RDP ports, applying multiple-factor authentication wherever possible, and logging RDP login attempts.
  • Audit logs for all remote connection protocols.
  • Train users to identify and report attempts at social engineering.
  • Identify and suspend access of users exhibiting unusual activity.

Water and Wastewater Systems Security Recommendations

The following physical security measures serve as additional protective measures:

  • Install independent cyber-physical safety systems. These are systems that physically prevent dangerous conditions from occurring if the control system is compromised by a threat actor.
  • Examples of cyber-physical safety system controls include:
    • Size of the chemical pump
    • Size of the chemical reservoir
    • Gearing on valves
    • Pressure switches, etc.

The benefit of these types of controls in the water sector is that smaller systems, with limited cybersecurity capability, can assess their system from a worst-case scenario. The operators can take physical steps to limit the damage. If, for example, cyber actors gain control of a sodium hydroxide pump, they will be unable to raise the pH to dangerous levels.

Remote Control Software Recommendations

For a more secured implementation of TeamViewer software:

  • Do not use unattended access features, such as “Start TeamViewer with Windows” and “Grant easy access.”
  • Configure TeamViewer service to “manual start,” so that the application and associated background services are stopped when not in use.
  • Set random passwords to generate 10-character alphanumeric passwords.
  • If using personal passwords, utilize complex rotating passwords of varying lengths. Note: TeamViewer allows users to change connection passwords for each new session. If an end user chooses this option, never save connection passwords as an option as they can be leveraged for persistence.
  • When configuring access control for a host, utilize custom settings to tier the access a remote party may attempt to acquire.
  • Require remote party to receive confirmation from the host to gain any access other than “view only.” Doing so will ensure that, if an unauthorized party is able to connect via TeamViewer, they will only see a locked screen and will not have keyboard control.
  • Utilize the ‘Block and Allow’ list which enables a user to control which other organizational users of TeamViewer may request access to the system. This list can also be used to block users suspected of unauthorized access.

Contact Information

To report suspicious or criminal activity related to information found in this Joint Cybersecurity Advisory, contact your local FBI field office at www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field, or the FBI’s 24/7 Cyber Watch (CyWatch) at (855) 292-3937 or by e-mail at CyWatch@fbi.gov or your local WMD Coordinator. When available, please include the following information regarding the incident: date, time, and location of the incident; type of activity; number of people affected; type of equipment used for the activity; the name of the submitting company or organization; and a designated point of contact.

To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at Central@cisa.dhs.gov.

Revisions

  • February 11, 2021: Initial Version
  • February 12, 2021: Update to PDF File

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Source de l’article sur us-cert.gov

CERTFR-2021-ALE-002 : Vulnérabilité dans Google Chrome (05 février 2021)

Le 04 février 2021, Google a publié un correctif pour la vulnérabilité CVE-2021-21148 affectant son navigateur Chrome. Cette vulnérabilité permet un débordement de tampon dans le tas.

Google indique avoir connaissance de l’existence d’un code d’attaque exploitant cette …
Source de l’article sur CERT-FR

CERTFR-2021-ALE-001 : Vulnérabilité dans SonicWall SMA100 (02 février 2021)

Le 01 février 2021, SonicWall a confirmé l’existence d’une vulnérabilité de type 0 jour dans leurs passerelles d’accès sécurisé SMA séries 100. Celle-ci affecte uniquement les versions 10.x.

Les risques liés à cette vulnérabilité ne sont pas précisés, mais sont jugés comme critiques …
Source de l’article sur CERT-FR

AA21-008A: Detecting Post-Compromise Threat Activity in Microsoft Cloud Environments

Original release date: January 8, 2021

Summary

This Advisory uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&CK®) framework. See the ATT&CK for Enterprise for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.

This Alert is a companion alert to AA20-352A: Advanced Persistent Threat Compromise of Government Agencies, Critical Infrastructure, and Private Sector Organizations. AA20-352A primarily focuses on an advanced persistent threat (APT) actor’s compromise of SolarWinds Orion products as an initial access vector into networks of U.S. Government agencies, critical infrastructure entities, and private network organizations. As noted in AA20-352A, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has evidence of initial access vectors in addition to the compromised SolarWinds Orion products.

This Alert also addresses activity—irrespective of the initial access vector leveraged—that CISA attributes to an APT actor. Specifically, CISA has seen an APT actor using compromised applications in a victim’s Microsoft 365 (M365)/Azure environment. CISA has also seen this APT actor utilizing additional credentials and Application Programming Interface (API) access to cloud resources of private and public sector organizations. These tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) feature three key components:

  • Compromising or bypassing federated identity solutions;
  • Using forged authentication tokens to move laterally to Microsoft cloud environments; and
  • Using privileged access to a victim’s cloud environment to establish difficult-to-detect persistence mechanisms for Application Programming Interface (API)-based access.

This Alert describes these TTPs and offers an overview of, and guidance on, available open-source tools—including a CISA-developed tool, Sparrow—for network defenders to analyze their Microsoft Azure Active Directory (AD), Office 365 (O365), and M365 environments to detect potentially malicious activity.

Note: this Alert describes artifacts—presented by these attacks—from which CISA has identified detectable evidence of the threat actor’s initial objectives. CISA continues to analyze the threat actor’s follow-on objectives.

Technical Details

Frequently, CISA has observed the APT actor gaining Initial Access [TA0001] to victims’ enterprise networks via compromised SolarWinds Orion products (e.g., Solorigate, Sunburst).[1] However, CISA is investigating instances in which the threat actor may have obtained initial access by Password Guessing [T1110.001], Password Spraying [T1110.003], and/or exploiting inappropriately secured administrative or service credentials (Unsecured Credentials [T1552]) instead of utilizing the compromised SolarWinds Orion products.

CISA observed this threat actor moving from user context to administrator rights for Privilege Escalation [TA0004] within a compromised network and using native Windows tools and techniques, such as Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), to enumerate the Microsoft Active Directory Federated Services (ADFS) certificate-signing capability. This enumeration allows threat actors to forge authentication tokens (OAuth) to issue claims to service providers—without having those claims checked against the identity provider—and then to move laterally to Microsoft Cloud environments (Lateral Movement [TA0008]).

The threat actor has also used on-premises access to manipulate and bypass identity controls and multi-factor authentication. This activity demonstrates how sophisticated adversaries can use credentials from one portion of an organization to move laterally (Lateral Movement [TA0008]) through trust boundaries, evade defenses and detection (Defense Evasion [TA0005]), and steal sensitive data (Collection [TA0009]).

This level of compromise is challenging to remediate and requires a rigorous multi-disciplinary effort to regain administrative control before recovering.

Mitigations

Detection

Guidance on identifying affected SolarWinds software is well documented.[2] However—once an organization identifies a compromise via SolarWinds Orion products or other threat actor TTPs—identifying follow-on activity for on-premises networks requires fine-tuned network and host-based forensics.

The nature of cloud forensics is unique due to the growing and rapidly evolving technology footprints of major vendors. Microsoft’s O365 and M365 environments have built-in capabilities for detecting unusual activity. Microsoft also provides premium services (Advanced Threat Protection [ATP] and Azure Sentinel), which enable network defenders to investigate TTPs specific to the Solorigate activity.[3]

Detection Tools

CISA is providing examples of detection tools for informational purposes only. CISA does not endorse any commercial product or service, including any subjects of analysis. Any reference to specific commercial products, processes, or services does not constitute or imply their endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by CISA.

There are a number of open-source tools available to investigate adversary activity in Microsoft cloud environments and to detect unusual activity, service principals, and application activity.[4] Publicly available PowerShell tools that network defenders can use to investigate M365 and Microsoft Azure include:

  • CISA’s Sparrow,
  • Open-source utility Hawk, and
  • CrowdStrike’s Azure Reporting Tool (CRT).

Additionally, Microsoft’s Office 365 Management API and Graph API provide an open interface for ingesting telemetry and evaluating service configurations for signs of anomalous activity and intrusion.

Note: these open-source tools are highlighted and explained to assist with on-site investigation and remediation in cloud environments but are not all-encompassing. Open source tools can be complemented by services such as Azure Sentinel, a Microsoft premium service that provides comprehensive analysis tools, including custom detections for the activity indicated.

General Guidance on Using Detection Tools

  1. Audit the creation and use of service principal credentials. Look for unusual application usage, such as use of dormant applications.
  2. Audit the assignment of credentials to applications that allow non-interactive sign-in by the application. Look for unexpected trust relationships added to the Azure Active Directory.
  3. Download the interactive sign-ins from the Azure admin portal or use the Microsoft Sentinel product. Review new token validation time periods with high values and investigate whether it was a legitimate change or an attempt to gain persistence by a threat actor.

Sparrow

CISA created Sparrow to help network defenders detect possible compromised accounts and applications in the Azure/M365 environment. The tool focuses on the narrow scope of user and application activity endemic to identity- and authentication-based attacks seen recently in multiple sectors. It is neither comprehensive nor exhaustive of available data. It is intended to narrow a larger set of available investigation modules and telemetry to those specific to recent attacks on federated identity sources and applications.

CISA advises Sparrow users to take the following actions.

  1. Use Sparrow to detect any recent domain authentication or federation modifications.
    1. Domain and federation modification operations are uncommon and should be investigated.
  2. Examine logs for new and modified credentials applied to applications and service principals; delineate for the credential type. Sparrow can be used to detect the modification of service principals and application credentials.
    1. Create a timeline for all credential changes, focusing on recent wholesale changes.
    2. Review the “top actors” for activity in the environment and the number of credential modifications performed.
    3. Monitor changes in application and service principal credentials.
    4. Investigate any instances of excessive permissions being granted, including, but not limited to, Exchange Online, Microsoft Graph, and Azure AD Graph.
  3. Use Sparrow to detect privilege escalation, such as adding a service principal, user, or group to a privileged role.
  4. Use Sparrow to detect OAuth consent and users’ consent to applications, which is useful for interpreting changes in adversary TTPs.
  5. Use Sparrow to identify anomalous Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) token sign-ins by pivoting on the unified audit log UserAuthenticationValue of 16457, which is an indicator of how a SAML token was built and is a potential indicator for forged SAML tokens.
    1. Note that this TTP has not been the subject of significant published security research but may indicate an unusual usage of a token, such as guest access for external partners to M365 resources.
  6. Review the PowerShell logs that Sparrow exports.
    1. Review PowerShell mailbox sign-ins and validate that the logins are legitimate actions.
    2. Review PowerShell usage for users with PowerShell in the environment.
  7. Use Sparrow to check the Graph API application permissions of all service principals and applications in M365/Azure AD.
    1. Investigate unusual activity regarding Microsoft Graph API permissions (using either the legacy https://graph.windows.net/ or https://graph.microsoft.com). Graph is used frequently as part of these TTPs, often to access and manipulate mailbox resources.
  8. Review Sparrow’s listed tenant’s Azure AD domains, to see if the domains have been modified.
  9. For customers with G5 or E5 licensing levels, review MailItemsAccessed for insight into what application identification (ID) was used for accessing users’ mailboxes. Use Sparrow to query for a specific application ID using the app id investigation capability, which will check to see if it is accessing mail or file items.
    1. The MailItemsAccessed event provides audibility for mailbox data accessed via mail protocols or clients.
    2. By analyzing the MailItemsAccessed action, incident responders can determine which user mailbox items have been accessed and potentially exfiltrated by a threat actor. This event will be recorded even in some situations where the message was not necessarily read interactively (e.g., bind or sync).[5]
    3. The resulting suspicious application ID can provide incident responders with a pivot to detect other suspicious applications that require additional analysis.
    4. Check for changes to applications with regards to the accessing of resources such as mail or file items.

Hawk

Hawk is an open-source, PowerShell-driven, community-developed tool network defenders can use to quickly and easily gather data from O365 and Azure for security investigations. Incident responders and network defenders can investigate specific user principals or the entire tenant. Data it provides include IP addresses and sign-in data. Additionally, Hawk can track IP usage for concurrent login situations.

Hawk users should review login details for administrator accounts and take the following steps.

  1.  Investigate high-value administrative accounts to detect anomalous or unusual activity (Global Admins).
  2. Enable PowerShell logging, and evaluate PowerShell activity in the environment not used for traditional or expected purposes.
    1. PowerShell logging does not reveal the exact cmdlet that was run on the tenant.
  3. Look for users with unusual sign-in locations, dates, and times.
  4. Check permissions of service principals and applications in M365/Azure AD.
  5. Detect the frequency of resource access from unusual places. Use the tool to pivot to a trusted application and see if it is accessing mail or file items.
  6. Review mailbox rules and recent mailbox rule changes.

CrowdStrike Azure Reporting Tool

CrowdStrike’s Azure Reporting Tool (CRT) can help network defenders analyze their Microsoft Azure AD and M365 environment to help organizations analyze permissions in their Azure AD tenant and service configuration. This tool has minor overlap with Sparrow; it shows unique items, but it does not cover the same areas. CISA is highlighting this tool because it is one of the only free, open-source tools available to investigate this activity and could be used to complement Sparrow.

Detection Tool Distinctions

  • Sparrow differs from CRT by looking for specific indicators of compromise associated with the recent attacks.
  • CRT focuses on the tenant’s Azure AD permissions and Exchange Online configuration settings instead of the unified audit log, which gives it a different output from Sparrow or Hawk.
  • CRT returns the same broad scope of application/delegated permissions for service principals and applications as Hawk.
  • As part of its investigation, Sparrow homes in on a narrow set of application permissions given to the Graph API, which is common to the recent attacks.
  • CRT looks at Exchange Online federation configuration and federation trust, while Sparrow focuses on listing Azure AD domains.
  • Among the items network defenders can use CRT to review are delegated permissions and application permissions, federation configurations, federation trusts, mail forwarding rules, service principals, and objects with KeyCredentials.

Detection Methods

Microsoft breaks the threat actor’s recent activity into four primary stages, which are described below along with associated detection methods. Microsoft describes these stages as beginning with all activity after the compromise of the on-premises identity solution, such as ADFS.[6]

Note: this step provides an entry vector to cloud technology environments, and is unnecessary when the threat actor has compromised an identity solution or credential that allows the APT direct access to the cloud(e.g., without leveraging the SolarWinds Orion vulnerability).

Stage 1: Forging a trusted authentication token used to access resources that trust the on-premises identity provider

These attacks (often referred to as “Golden Security Assertion Markup Language” attacks) can be analyzed using a combination of cloud-based and standard on-premises techniques.[7] For example, network defenders can use OAuth claims for specific principals made at the Azure AD level and compare them to the on-premises identity.

Export sign-in logs from the Azure AD portal and look at the Authentication Method field.

Note: at portal.azure.com, click on a user and review the authentication details (e.g., date, method, result). Without Sentinel, this is the only way to get these logs, which are critical for this effort.

Detection Method 1: Correlating service provider login events with corresponding authentication events in Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) and Domain Controllers

Using SAML single sign-on, search for any logins to service providers that do not have corresponding event IDs 4769, 1200, and 1202 in the domain.

Detection Method 2: Identifying certificate export events in ADFS

Look for:

  1. The IP address and Activity_ID in EventCode 410 and the Activity_ID and Instance_ID in EventCode 500.
  2. Export-PfxCertificate or certutil-exportPFX in Event IDs 4103 and 4104, which may include detection of a certificate extraction technique.
  3. Deleted certificate extraction with ADFSdump performed using Sysmon Event ID 18 with the pipe name microsoft##widtsqlquery (exclude processes regularly making this pipe connection on the machine).
  4. Event ID 307 (The Federation Service configuration was changed), which can be correlated to relevant Event ID 510 with the same instance ID for change details (Event ID 510 with the same Instance ID could be more than one event per single Event ID 307 event).

Detection Method 3: Customizing SAML response to identify irregular access

This method serves as prevention for the future (and would only detect future, not past, activity), as it helps identify irregularities from the point of the change forward. Organizations can modify SAML responses to include custom elements for each service provider to monitor and detect any anomalous requests.[8]

Detection Method 4: Detecting malicious ADFS trust modification

A threat actor who gains administrative access to ADFS can add a new, trusted ADFS rather than extracting the certificate and private key as part of a standard Golden SAML attack.[9]
Network defenders should look for:

  1. Event ID 307 (The Federation Service configuration was changed), which can be correlated to relevant Event ID 510 with the same Instance ID for change details. (Event ID 510 with the same Instance ID could be more than one event per single Event ID 307 event.)
    1. Review events, particularly searching for Configuration: Type: IssuanceAuthority where Property Value references an unfamiliar domain.
  2. Possible activity of an interrogating ADFS host by using ADFS PowerShell plugins. Look for changes in the federation trust environment that would indicate new ADFS sources.

Stage 2: Using the forged authentication token to create configuration changes in the Service Provider, such as Azure AD (establishing a foothold)

After the threat actor has compromised the on-premises identity provider, they identify their next series of objectives by reviewing activity in the Microsoft Cloud activity space (Microsoft Azure and M365 tenants).

The threat actor uses the ability to forge authentication tokens to establish a presence in the cloud environment. The actor adds additional credentials to an existing service principal. Once the threat actor has impersonated a privileged Azure AD account, they are likely to further manipulate the Azure/M365 environment (action on objectives in the cloud).

Network defenders should take the following steps.

  1. Audit the creation and use of service principal and application credentials. Sparrow will detect modifications to these credentials.
    1. Look for unusual application usage, such as dormant or forgotten applications being used again.
    2. Audit the assignment of credentials to applications that allow non-interactive sign-in by the application.
  2. Look for unexpected trust relationships that have been added to Azure AD. (Download the last 30 days of non-interactive sign-ins from the Azure portal or use Azure Sentinel.).[10]
  3. Use Hawk (and any sub-modules available) to run an investigation on a specific user. Hawk will provide IP addresses, sign-in data, and other data. Hawk can also track IP usage in concurrent login situations.
  4. Review login details for administrator accounts (e.g., high-value administrative accounts, such as Global Admins). Look for unusual sign-in locations, dates, and times.
  5. Review new token validation time periods with high values and investigate whether the changes are legitimate or a threat actor’s attempts to gain persistence.

Stage 3: Acquiring an OAuth access token for the application using the forged credentials added to an existing application or service principal and calling APIs with the permissions assigned to that application

In some cases, the threat actor has been observed adding permissions to existing applications or service principals. Additionally the actor has been seen establishing new applications or service principals briefly and using them to add permissions to the existing applications or service principals, possibly to add a layer of indirection (e.g., using it to add a credential to another service principal, and then deleting it).[11]

Network defenders should use Sparrow to:

  1. Examine highly privileged accounts; specifically using sign-in logs, look for unusual sign-in locations, dates, and times.
  2. Create a timeline for all credential changes.
  3. Monitor changes in application credentials (the script will export into csv named AppUpdate_Operations_Export).
  4. Detect service principal credentials change and service principal change (e.g., if an actor adds new permissions or expands existing permissions).
    1. Export and view this activity via the ServicePrincipal_Operations_Export.
  5. Record OAuth consent and consent to applications
    1. Export and view this record via the Consent_Operations_Export file.
  6. Investigate instances of excessive high permissions, including, but not limited to Exchange Online, Microsoft Graph, and Azure AD Graph.
    1. Review Microsoft Graph API permissions granted to service principals.
    2. Export and view this activity via the ApplicationGraphPermissions csv file.
      1. Note: Hawk can also return the full list of service principal permissions for further investigation.
    3. Review top actors and the amount of credential modifications performed.
    4. Monitor changes in application credentials.
  7. Identify manipulation of custom or third-party applications.
    1. Network defenders should review the catalog of custom or third-party vendors with applications in the Microsoft tenant and perform the above interrogation principles on those applications and trusts.
  8. Review modifications to federation trust settings.
    1. Review new token validation time periods with high values and investigate whether this was a legitimate change or an attempt to gain persistence by the threat actor.
      1. The script detects the escalation of privileges, including the addition of Service Principals (SP) to privileged roles. Export this data into csv called AppRoleAssignment_Operations_Export.

Stage 4: Once access has been established, the threat actor Uses Microsoft Graph API to conduct action on objectives from an external RESTful API (queries impersonating existing applications).

Network defenders should:

  1. In MailItemsAccessed operations, found within the Unified Audit Log (UAL), review the application ID used (requires G5 or E5 license for this specific detail).
  2. Query the specific application ID, using the Sparrow script’s app ID investigation capability to interrogate mail and file items accessed for that applicationID (Use the application ID utility for any other suspicious apps that require additional analysis.).
  3. Check the permissions of an application in M365/Azure AD using Sparrow.
    1. Hawk will return Azure_Application_Audit, and Sparrow will return ApplicationGraphPermissions.
    2. Network defenders will see the IP address that Graph API uses.
    3. Note: the Microsoft IP address may not show up as a virtual private server/anonymized endpoint.
  4. Investigate a specific service principal, if it is a user-specific user account, in Hawk. This activity is challenging to see without Azure Sentinel or manually downloading and reviewing logs from the sign-in portal.

Microsoft Telemetry Nuances

The existing tools and techniques used to evaluate cloud-based telemetry sources present challenges not represented in traditional forensic techniques. Primarily, the amount of telemetry retention is far less than the traditional logging facilities of on-premises data sources. Threat actor activity that is more than 90 days old is unlikely to have been saved by traditional sources or be visible with the Microsoft M365 Management API or in the UAL.

Service principal logging is available using the Azure Portal via the « Service Principal Sign-ins » feature. Enable settings in the Azure Portal (see “Diagnostic Setting”) to ingest logs into Sentinel or a third-party security information and event management (SIEM) tool. An Azure Premium P1 or Premium P2 license is necessary to access this setting as well as other features, such as a log analytics workspace, storage account, or event hub.[12] These logs must be downloaded manually if not ingested by one of the methods listed in the Detection Methods section.

Global Administrator rights are often required by tools other than Hawk and Sparrow to evaluate M365 cloud security posture. Logging capability and visibility of data varies by licensing models and subscription to premium services, such as Microsoft Defender for O365 and Azure Sentinel. According to CrowdStrike, « There was an inability to audit via API, and there is the requirement for global admin rights to view important information which we found to be excessive. Key information should be easily accessible. »[13]

Documentation for specific event codes, such as UserAuthenticationMethod 16457, which may indicate a suspicious SAML token forgery, is no longer available in the M365 Unified Access Log. Auditing narratives on some events no longer exist as part of core Microsoft documentation sources.

The use of industry-standard SIEMs for log detection is crucial for providing historical context for threat hunting in Microsoft cloud environments. Standard G3/E3 licenses only provide 90 days of auditing; with the advanced auditing license that is provided with a G5/E5 license, audit logs can be extended to retain information for a year. CISA notes that this license change is proactive, rather than reactive: it allows enhanced visibility and features for telemetry from the moment of integration but does not provide retroactive visibility on previous events or historical context.

A properly configured SIEM can provide:

  1. Longer term storage of log data.
  2. Cross correlation of log data with endpoint data and network data (such as those produced by ADFS servers), endpoint detection and response data, and identity provider information.
  3. Ability to query use of application connectors in Azure.

Built-in tools, such as Microsoft Cloud Services and M365 applications, provide much of the same visibility available from custom tools and are mapped to the MITRE ATT&CK framework and easy-to-understand dashboards.[14] However, these tools often do not have the ability to pull historical data older than seven days. Therefore, storage solutions that appropriately meet governance standards and usability metrics for analysts for the SIEM must be carefully planned and arranged.

Contact Information

CISA encourages recipients of this report to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. For any questions related to this report, please contact CISA at

  • 1-888-282-0870 (From outside the United States: +1-703-235-8832)
  • central@cisa.dhs.gov (UNCLASS)
  • us-cert@dhs.sgov.gov (SIPRNET)
  • us-cert@dhs.ic.gov (JWICS)

CISA encourages you to report any suspicious activity, including cybersecurity incidents, possible malicious code, software vulnerabilities, and phishing-related scams. Reporting forms can be found on the CISA/US-CERT homepage at http://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/.

Resources

Azure Active Directory Workbook to Assess Solorigate Risk: https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/azure-active-directory-identity/azure-ad-workbook-to-help-you-assess-solorigate-risk/ba-p/2010718

Volexity – Dark Halo Leverages SolarWinds Compromise to Breach Organizations: https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/

How to Find Activity with Sentinel: https://www.verboon.info/2020/10/monitoring-service-principal-sign-ins-with-azuread-and-azure-sentinel/

Third-Party Walkthrough of the Attack: https://dirkjanm.io/azure-ad-privilege-escalation-application-admin/

National Security Agency Advisory on Detecting Abuse of Authentication Mechanisms: https://media.defense.gov/2020/Dec/17/2002554125/-1/-1/0/AUTHENTICATION_MECHANISMS_CSA_U_OO_198854_20.PDF

Microsoft 365 App for Splunk: https://splunkbase.splunk.com/app/3786/

CISA Remediation Guidance: https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-352a

Feedback

CISA strives to make this report a valuable tool for our partners and welcomes feedback on how this publication could be improved. You can help by answering a few short questions about this report at the following URL: https://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/forms/feedback.

References

Revisions

  • Initial version: January 8, 2021

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Source de l’article sur us-cert.gov

AA20-352A: Advanced Persistent Threat Compromise of Government Agencies, Critical Infrastructure, and Private Sector Organizations

Original release date: December 17, 2020

Summary

This Alert uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&CK®) version 8 framework. See the ATT&CK for Enterprise version 8 for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is aware of compromises of U.S. government agencies, critical infrastructure entities, and private sector organizations by an advanced persistent threat (APT) actor beginning in at least March 2020. This APT actor has demonstrated patience, operational security, and complex tradecraft in these intrusions. CISA expects that removing this threat actor from compromised environments will be highly complex and challenging for organizations.

One of the initial access vectors for this activity is a supply chain compromise of the following SolarWinds Orion products (see Appendix A).

  • Orion Platform 2019.4 HF5, version 2019.4.5200.9083
  • Orion Platform 2020.2 RC1, version 2020.2.100.12219
  • Orion Platform 2020.2 RC2, version 2020.2.5200.12394
  • Orion Platform 2020.2, 2020.2 HF1, version 2020.2.5300.12432

Note: CISA has evidence of additional initial access vectors, other than the SolarWinds Orion platform; however, these are still being investigated. CISA will update this Alert as new information becomes available.

On December 13, 2020, CISA released Emergency Directive 21-01: Mitigate SolarWinds Orion Code Compromise, ordering federal civilian executive branch departments and agencies to disconnect affected devices. Note: this Activity Alert does not supersede the requirements of Emergency Directive 21-01 (ED-21-01) and does not represent formal guidance to federal agencies under ED 21-01.

CISA has determined that this threat poses a grave risk to the Federal Government and state, local, tribal, and territorial governments as well as critical infrastructure entities and other private sector organizations. CISA advises stakeholders to read this Alert and review the enclosed indicators (see Appendix B).

Key Takeaways

  • This is a patient, well-resourced, and focused adversary that has sustained long duration activity on victim networks.
  • The SolarWinds Orion supply chain compromise is not the only initial infection vector this APT actor leveraged.
  • Not all organizations that have the backdoor delivered through SolarWinds Orion have been targeted by the adversary with follow-on actions.
  • Organizations with suspected compromises need to be highly conscious of operational security, including when engaging in incident response activities and planning and implementing remediation plans. 

Click here for a PDF version of this report.

Technical Details

Overview

CISA is aware of compromises, which began at least as early as March 2020, at U.S. government agencies, critical infrastructure entities, and private sector organizations by an APT actor. This threat actor has demonstrated sophistication and complex tradecraft in these intrusions. CISA expects that removing the threat actor from compromised environments will be highly complex and challenging. This adversary has demonstrated an ability to exploit software supply chains and shown significant knowledge of Windows networks. It is likely that the adversary has additional initial access vectors and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) that have not yet been discovered. CISA will continue to update this Alert and the corresponding indicators of compromise (IOCs) as new information becomes available.

Initial Infection Vectors [TA0001]

CISA is investigating incidents that exhibit adversary TTPs consistent with this activity, including some where victims either do not leverage SolarWinds Orion or where SolarWinds Orion was present but where there was no SolarWinds exploitation activity observed. Volexity has also reported publicly that they observed the APT using a secret key that the APT previously stole in order to generate a cookie to bypass the Duo multi-factor authentication protecting access to Outlook Web App (OWA).[1] Volexity attributes this intrusion to the same activity as the SolarWinds Orion supply chain compromise, and the TTPs are consistent between the two. This observation indicates that there are other initial access vectors beyond SolarWinds Orion, and there may still be others that are not yet known.

SolarWinds Orion Supply Chain Compromise

SolarWinds Orion is an enterprise network management software suite that includes performance and application monitoring and network configuration management along with several different types of analyzing tools. SolarWinds Orion is used to monitor and manage on-premise and hosted infrastructures. To provide SolarWinds Orion with the necessary visibility into this diverse set of technologies, it is common for network administrators to configure SolarWinds Orion with pervasive privileges, making it a valuable target for adversary activity.

The threat actor has been observed leveraging a software supply chain compromise of SolarWinds Orion products[2] (see Appendix A). The adversary added a malicious version of the binary solarwinds.orion.core.businesslayer.dll into the SolarWinds software lifecycle, which was then signed by the legitimate SolarWinds code signing certificate. This binary, once installed, calls out to a victim-specific avsvmcloud[.]com domain using a protocol designed to mimic legitimate SolarWinds protocol traffic. After the initial check-in, the adversary can use the Domain Name System (DNS) response to selectively send back new domains or IP addresses for interactive command and control (C2) traffic. Consequently, entities that observe traffic from their SolarWinds Orion devices to avsvmcloud[.]com should not immediately conclude that the adversary leveraged the SolarWinds Orion backdoor. Instead, additional investigation is needed into whether the SolarWinds Orion device engaged in further unexplained communications. If additional Canonical Name record (CNAME) resolutions associated with the avsvmcloud[.]com domain are observed, possible additional adversary action leveraging the back door has occurred.

Based on coordinated actions by multiple private sector partners, as of December 15, 2020, avsvmcloud[.]com resolves to 20.140.0[.]1, which is an IP address on the Microsoft blocklist. This negates any future use of the implants and would have caused communications with this domain to cease. In the case of infections where the attacker has already moved C2 past the initial beacon, infection will likely continue notwithstanding this action.

SolarWinds Orion typically leverages a significant number of highly privileged accounts and access to perform normal business functions. Successful compromise of one of these systems can therefore enable further action and privileges in any environment where these accounts are trusted.

Anti-Forensic Techniques

The adversary is making extensive use of obfuscation to hide their C2 communications. The adversary is using virtual private servers (VPSs), often with IP addresses in the home country of the victim, for most communications to hide their activity among legitimate user traffic. The attackers also frequently rotate their “last mile” IP addresses to different endpoints to obscure their activity and avoid detection.

FireEye has reported that the adversary is using steganography (Obfuscated Files or Information: Steganography [T1027.003]) to obscure C2 communications.[3] This technique negates many common defensive capabilities in detecting the activity. Note: CISA has not yet been able to independently confirm the adversary’s use of this technique.

According to FireEye, the malware also checks for a list of hard-coded IPv4 and IPv6 addresses—including RFC-reserved IPv4 and IPv6 IP—in an attempt to detect if the malware is executed in an analysis environment (e.g., a malware analysis sandbox); if so, the malware will stop further execution. Additionally, FireEye analysis identified that the backdoor implemented time threshold checks to ensure that there are unpredictable delays between C2 communication attempts, further frustrating traditional network-based analysis.

While not a full anti-forensic technique, the adversary is heavily leveraging compromised or spoofed tokens for accounts for lateral movement. This will frustrate commonly used detection techniques in many environments. Since valid, but unauthorized, security tokens and accounts are utilized, detecting this activity will require the maturity to identify actions that are outside of a user’s normal duties. For example, it is unlikely that an account associated with the HR department would need to access the cyber threat intelligence database.

Taken together, these observed techniques indicate an adversary who is skilled, stealthy with operational security, and is willing to expend significant resources to maintain covert presence.

Privilege Escalation and Persistence [TA0004, TA0003]

The adversary has been observed using multiple persistence mechanisms across a variety of intrusions. CISA has observed the threat actor adding authentication tokens and credentials to highly privileged Active Directory domain accounts as a persistence and escalation mechanism. In many instances, the tokens enable access to both on-premise and hosted resources. Microsoft has released a query that can help detect this activity.[4]

Microsoft reported that the actor has added new federation trusts to existing infrastructure, a technique that CISA believes was utilized by a threat actor in an incident to which CISA has responded. Where this technique is used, it is possible that authentication can occur outside of an organization’s known infrastructure and may not be visible to the legitimate system owner. Microsoft has released a query to help identify this activity.[5]

User Impersonation

The adversary’s initial objectives, as understood today, appear to be to collect information from victim environments. One of the principal ways the adversary is accomplishing this objective is by compromising the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) signing certificate using their escalated Active Directory privileges. Once this is accomplished, the adversary creates unauthorized but valid tokens and presents them to services that trust SAML tokens from the environment. These tokens can then be used to access resources in hosted environments, such as email, for data exfiltration via authorized application programming interfaces (APIs).

CISA has observed in its incident response work adversaries targeting email accounts belonging to key personnel, including IT and incident response personnel.

These are some key functions and systems that commonly use SAML.

  • Hosted email services
  • Hosted business intelligence applications
  • Travel systems
  • Timecard systems
  • File storage services (such as SharePoint)

Detection: Impossible Logins

The adversary is using a complex network of IP addresses to obscure their activity, which can result in a detection opportunity referred to as “impossible travel.” Impossible travel occurs when a user logs in from multiple IP addresses that are a significant geographic distance apart (i.e., a person could not realistically travel between the geographic locations of the two IP addresses during the time period between the logins). Note: implementing this detection opportunity can result in false positives if legitimate users apply virtual private network (VPN) solutions before connecting into networks.

Detection: Impossible Tokens

The following conditions may indicate adversary activity.

  • Most organizations have SAML tokens with 1-hour validity periods. Long SAML token validity durations, such as 24 hours, could be unusual.
  • The SAML token contains different timestamps, including the time it was issued and the last time it was used. A token having the same timestamp for when it was issued and when it was used is not indicative of normal user behavior as users tend to use the token within a few seconds but not at the exact same time of issuance.
  • A token that does not have an associated login with its user account within an hour of the token being generated also warrants investigation.

Operational Security

Due to the nature of this pattern of adversary activity—and the targeting of key personnel, incident response staff, and IT email accounts—discussion of findings and mitigations should be considered very sensitive, and should be protected by operational security measures. An operational security plan needs to be developed and socialized, via out-of-band communications, to ensure all staff are aware of the applicable handling caveats.

Operational security plans should include:

  • Out-of-band communications guidance for staff and leadership;
  • An outline of what “normal business” is acceptable to be conducted on the suspect network;
  • A call tree for critical contacts and decision making; and
  • Considerations for external communications to stakeholders and media.

MITRE ATT&CK® Techniques

CISA assesses that the threat actor engaged in the activities described in this Alert uses the below-listed ATT&CK techniques.

  • Query Registry [T1012]
  • Obfuscated Files or Information [T1027]
  • Obfuscated Files or Information: Steganography [T1027.003]
  • Process Discovery [T1057]
  • Indicator Removal on Host: File Deletion [T1070.004]
  • Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]
  • Application Layer Protocol: DNS [T1071.004]
  • File and Directory Discovery [T1083]
  • Ingress Tool Transfer [T1105]
  • Data Encoding: Standard Encoding [T1132.001]
  • Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Dependencies and Development Tools [T1195.001]
  • Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Supply Chain [T1195.002]
  • Software Discovery [T1518]
  • Software Discovery: Security Software [T1518.001]
  • Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]
  • Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing [T1553.002]
  • Dynamic Resolution: Domain Generation Algorithms [T1568.002]
  • System Services: Service Execution [T1569.002]
  • Compromise Infrastructure [T1584]

Mitigations

SolarWinds Orion Owners

Owners of vulnerable SolarWinds Orion products will generally fall into one of three categories.

  • Category 1 includes those who do not have the identified malicious binary. These owners can patch their systems and resume use as determined by and consistent with their internal risk evaluations.
  • Category 2 includes those who have identified the presence of the malicious binary—with or without beaconing to avsvmcloud[.]com. Owners with malicious binary whose vulnerable appliances only unexplained external communications are with avsvmcloud[.]com—a fact that can be verified by comprehensive network monitoring for the device—can harden the device, re-install the updated software from a verified software supply chain, and resume use as determined by and consistent with a thorough risk evaluation.
  • Category 3 includes those with the binary beaconing to avsvmcloud[.]com and secondary C2 activity to a separate domain or IP address. If you observed communications with avsvmcloud[.]com that appear to suddenly cease prior to December 14, 2020— not due to an action taken by your network defenders—you fall into this category. Assume the environment has been compromised, and initiate incident response procedures immediately.

Compromise Mitigations

If the adversary has compromised administrative level credentials in an environment—or if organizations identify SAML abuse in the environment, simply mitigating individual issues, systems, servers, or specific user accounts will likely not lead to the adversary’s removal from the network. In such cases, organizations should consider the entire identity trust store as compromised. In the event of a total identity compromise, a full reconstitution of identity and trust services is required to successfully remediate. In this reconstitution, it bears repeating that this threat actor is among the most capable, and in many cases, a full rebuild of the environment is the safest action.

SolarWinds Orion Specific Mitigations

The following mitigations apply to networks using the SolarWinds Orion product. This includes any information system that is used by an entity or operated on its behalf.

Organizations that have the expertise to take the actions in Step 1 immediately should do so before proceeding to Step 2. Organizations without this capability should proceed to Step 2. Federal civilian executive branch agencies should ignore the below and refer instead to Emergency Directive 21-01 (and forthcoming associated guidance) for mitigation steps.

  • Step 1
    • Forensically image system memory and/or host operating systems hosting all instances of affected versions of SolarWinds Orion. Analyze for new user or service accounts, privileged or otherwise.
    • Analyze stored network traffic for indications of compromise, including new external DNS domains to which a small number of agency hosts (e.g., SolarWinds systems) have had connections.
  • Step 2
    • Affected organizations should immediately disconnect or power down affected all instances of affected versions of SolarWinds Orion from their network.
    • Additionally:
      • Block all traffic to and from hosts, external to the enterprise, where any version of SolarWinds Orion software has been installed.
      • Identify and remove all threat actor-controlled accounts and identified persistence mechanisms.  
  • Step 3  

See Joint Alert on Technical Approaches to Uncovering and Remediating Malicious Activity for more information on incident investigation and mitigation steps based on best practices.

CISA will update this Alert, as information becomes available and will continue to provide technical assistance, upon request, to affected entities as they work to identify and mitigate potential compromises.

Contact Information

CISA encourages recipients of this report to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. For any questions related to this report, please contact CISA at

  • 1-888-282-0870 (From outside the United States: +1-703-235-8832)
  • central@cisa.dhs.gov (UNCLASS)
  • us-cert@dhs.sgov.gov (SIPRNET)
  • us-cert@dhs.ic.gov (JWICS)

CISA encourages you to report any suspicious activity, including cybersecurity incidents, possible malicious code, software vulnerabilities, and phishing-related scams. Reporting forms can be found on the CISA/US-CERT homepage at http://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/.

Appendix A: Affected SolarWinds Orion Products

Table 1 identifies recent versions of SolarWinds Orion Platforms and indicates whether they have been identified as having the Sunburst backdoor present.

Table 1: Affected SolarWinds Orion Products

Orion Platform Version Sunburst Backdoor Code Present File Version SHA-256
2019.4 Tampered but not backdoored 2019.4.5200.8890 a25cadd48d70f6ea0c4a241d99c5241269e6faccb4054e62d16784640f8e53bc
2019.4 HF1 No 2019.4.5200.8950

9bee4af53a8cdd7ecabe5d0c77b6011abe887ac516a5a22ad51a058830403690

 

2019.4 HF2 No

2019.4.5200.8996

 

bb86f66d11592e3312cd03423b754f7337aeebba9204f54b745ed3821de6252d
2019.4 HF3 No 2019.4.5200.9001 ae6694fd12679891d95b427444466f186bcdcc79bc0627b590e0cb40de1928ad
2019.4 HF4 No 2019.4.5200.9045

9d6285db647e7eeabdb85b409fad61467de1655098fec2e25aeb7770299e9fee

 

2020.2 RC1 Yes

2020.2.100.12219

 

dab758bf98d9b36fa057a66cd0284737abf89857b73ca89280267ee7caf62f3b

 

2019.4 HF5 Yes 2019.4.5200.9083 32519b85c0b422e4656de6e6c41878e95fd95026267daab4215ee59c107d6c77
2020.2 RC2 Yes

2020.2.5200.12394

 

019085a76ba7126fff22770d71bd901c325fc68ac55aa743327984e89f4b0134

2020.2

2020.2 HF1

Yes

2020.2.5300.12432

 

ce77d116a074dab7a22a0fd4f2c1ab475f16eec42e1ded3c0b0aa8211fe858d6
2019.4 HF6 No 2019.4.5200.9106 8dfe613b00d495fb8905bdf6e1317d3e3ac1f63a626032fa2bdad4750887ee8a

2020.2.1

2020.2.1 HF1

 

No

    2020.2.15300.12766

 

143632672dcb6ef324343739636b984f5c52ece0e078cfee7c6cac4a3545403a
2020.2.1 HF2 No 2020.2.15300.12901

cc870c07eeb672ab33b6c2be51b173ad5564af5d98bfc02da02367a9e349a76f

 

 

Appendix B: Indicators of Compromise

Due to the operational security posture of the adversary, most observable IOCs are of limited utility; however, they can be useful for quick triage. Below is a compilation of IOCs from a variety of public sources provided for convenience. CISA will be updating this list with CISA developed IOCs as our investigations evolve.

Table 2: Indicators of Compromise

 IOC 

 Type   Notes   References   Source 
 32519b85c0b422e4656de6e6c41878e95fd95026267daab4215ee59c107d6c77   hash   Backdoor.Sunburst 

https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/ 

 

 a25cadd48d70f6ea0c4a241d99c5241269e6faccb4054e62d16784640f8e53bc

 hash  Backdoor.Sunburst https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-   attacks/  
 d3c6785e18fba3749fb785bc313cf8346182f532c59172b69adfb31b96a5d0af  hash  Backdoor.Sunburst https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber- attacks/  
 13.59.205[.]66  IPv4  DEFTSECURITY[.]com https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 deftsecurity[.]com  domain Domain malicious on VT, registered with  Amazon, hosted on US IP address 13.59.205.66, malware repository, spyware and malware

https://www.virustotal.com/gui/domain/deftsecurity.com/details

https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/

 Volexity
 54.193.127[.]66  IPv4 FREESCANONLINE[.]com  https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  
 ac1b2b89e60707a20e9eb1ca480bc3410ead40643b386d624c5d21b47c02917c  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 c09040d35630d75dfef0f804f320f8b3d16a481071076918e9b236a321c1ea77  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 dab758bf98d9b36fa057a66cd0284737abf89857b73ca89280267ee7caf62f3b  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 eb6fab5a2964c5817fb239a7a5079cabca0a00464fb3e07155f28b0a57a2c0ed  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 65.153.203[.]68  IPv4 Not seen as malicious on VT, Registered in USCenturyLink Communications, LLC https://www.hybrid-analysis.com/sample/12e76c16bbf64e83b79d8dac921c9cccabbe40d28ad480c636f94a5737b77c9a?environmentId=100  
 avsvmcloud[.]com  domain Reported by FireEye/ The malicious DLL calls out to a remote network infrastructure using the domains avsvmcloud.com. to prepare possible second-stage payloads, move laterally in the organization, and compromise or exfiltrate data. Malicious on VT. Hosted on IP address 20.140.0.1, which is registered with Microsoft.  malware callhome, command and control https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/

https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/

FireEye Report Talos

Volexity

 3.87.182[.]149  IPv4 Resolves to KUBECLOUD[.]com, IP registered to Amazon. Tracked by Insikt/RF as tied to SUNBURST intrusion activity. https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 3.16.81[.]254  IPv4 Resolves to SEOBUNDLEKIT[.]com, registered to Amazon. Tracked by Insikt/RF as tied SUNBURST intrusion activity. https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 12.227.230[.]4  IPv4 Seen as malicious on VT, Registered in US, AT&T Services, Inc https://www.hybrid-analysis.com/sample/8d34b366f4561ca1389ce2403f918e952584a56ea55876311cfb5d2aad875439  
 54.215.192[.]52  IPv4 THEDOCCLOUD[.]com https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 019085a76ba7126fff22770d71bd901c325fc68ac55aa743327984e89f4b0134  hash Trojan.MSIL.SunBurst ttps://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber- attacks/  
 ce77d116a074dab7a22a0fd4f2c1ab475f16eec42e1ded3c0b0aa8211fe858d6  hash Trojan.MSIL.SunBurst https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber- attacks/  
 8.18.144[.]11  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]12  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]9  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]20  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]40  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]44  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]62  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]130  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]135  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]136  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]149  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]156  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]158  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]165  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]170  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]180  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]188  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]21  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]33  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]36  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]131  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]134  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]136  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]139  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]150  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]157  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]181  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 13.27.184[.]217  IPv4    https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 18.217.225[.]111  IPv4    https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 18.220.219[.]143  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 20.141.48[.]154  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 34.219.234[.]134  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.1[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.21[.]54  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.48[.]22  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.101[.]22  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.113[.]55  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.145[.]34  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.209[.]33  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.212[.]52  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.224[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.229[.]1  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.240[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.245[.]1  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 196.203.11[.]89  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 digitalcollege[.]org  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 freescanonline[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 globalnetworkissues[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 kubecloud[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 lcomputers[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 seobundlekit[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 solartrackingsystem[.]net  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 thedoccloud[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 virtualwebdata[.]com  domain    https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 webcodez[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 d0d626deb3f9484e649294a8dfa814c5568f846d5aa02d4cdad5d041a29d5600  hash   https://blog.malwarebytes.com/threat-analysis/2020/12/advanced-cyber-attack-hits-private-and-public  
 c15abaf51e78ca56c0376522d699c978217bf041a3bd3c71d09193efa5717c71  hash   https://blog.malwarebytes.com/threat-analysis/2020/12/advanced-cyber-attack-hits-private-and-public  

References

Revisions

  • Initial Version: December 17, 2020

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Source de l’article sur us-cert.gov

AA20-352A: Advanced Persistent Threat Compromise of Government Agencies, Critical Infrastructure, and Private Sector Organizations

Original release date: December 17, 2020

Summary

This Alert uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&CK®) version 8 framework. See the ATT&CK for Enterprise version 8 for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is aware of compromises of U.S. government agencies, critical infrastructure entities, and private sector organizations by an advanced persistent threat (APT) actor beginning in at least March 2020. This APT actor has demonstrated patience, operational security, and complex tradecraft in these intrusions. CISA expects that removing this threat actor from compromised environments will be highly complex and challenging for organizations.

One of the initial access vectors for this activity is a supply chain compromise of the following SolarWinds Orion products (see Appendix A).

  • Orion Platform 2019.4 HF5, version 2019.4.5200.9083
  • Orion Platform 2020.2 RC1, version 2020.2.100.12219
  • Orion Platform 2020.2 RC2, version 2020.2.5200.12394
  • Orion Platform 2020.2, 2020.2 HF1, version 2020.2.5300.12432

Note: CISA has evidence of additional initial access vectors, other than the SolarWinds Orion platform; however, these are still being investigated. CISA will update this Alert as new information becomes available.

On December 13, 2020, CISA released Emergency Directive 21-01: Mitigate SolarWinds Orion Code Compromise, ordering federal civilian executive branch departments and agencies to disconnect affected devices. Note: this Activity Alert does not supersede the requirements of Emergency Directive 21-01 (ED-21-01) and does not represent formal guidance to federal agencies under ED 21-01.

CISA has determined that this threat poses a grave risk to the Federal Government and state, local, tribal, and territorial governments as well as critical infrastructure entities and other private sector organizations. CISA advises stakeholders to read this Alert and review the enclosed indicators (see Appendix B).

Key Takeaways

  • This is a patient, well-resourced, and focused adversary that has sustained long duration activity on victim networks.
  • The SolarWinds Orion supply chain compromise is not the only initial infection vector this APT actor leveraged.
  • Not all organizations that have the backdoor delivered through SolarWinds Orion have been targeted by the adversary with follow-on actions.
  • Organizations with suspected compromises need to be highly conscious of operational security, including when engaging in incident response activities and planning and implementing remediation plans. 

Click here for a PDF version of this report.

Technical Details

Overview

CISA is aware of compromises, which began at least as early as March 2020, at U.S. government agencies, critical infrastructure entities, and private sector organizations by an APT actor. This threat actor has demonstrated sophistication and complex tradecraft in these intrusions. CISA expects that removing the threat actor from compromised environments will be highly complex and challenging. This adversary has demonstrated an ability to exploit software supply chains and shown significant knowledge of Windows networks. It is likely that the adversary has additional initial access vectors and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) that have not yet been discovered. CISA will continue to update this Alert and the corresponding indicators of compromise (IOCs) as new information becomes available.

Initial Infection Vectors [TA0001]

CISA is investigating incidents that exhibit adversary TTPs consistent with this activity, including some where victims either do not leverage SolarWinds Orion or where SolarWinds Orion was present but where there was no SolarWinds exploitation activity observed. Volexity has also reported publicly that they observed the APT using a secret key that the APT previously stole in order to generate a cookie to bypass the Duo multi-factor authentication protecting access to Outlook Web App (OWA).[1] Volexity attributes this intrusion to the same activity as the SolarWinds Orion supply chain compromise, and the TTPs are consistent between the two. This observation indicates that there are other initial access vectors beyond SolarWinds Orion, and there may still be others that are not yet known.

SolarWinds Orion Supply Chain Compromise

SolarWinds Orion is an enterprise network management software suite that includes performance and application monitoring and network configuration management along with several different types of analyzing tools. SolarWinds Orion is used to monitor and manage on-premise and hosted infrastructures. To provide SolarWinds Orion with the necessary visibility into this diverse set of technologies, it is common for network administrators to configure SolarWinds Orion with pervasive privileges, making it a valuable target for adversary activity.

The threat actor has been observed leveraging a software supply chain compromise of SolarWinds Orion products[2] (see Appendix A). The adversary added a malicious version of the binary solarwinds.orion.core.businesslayer.dll into the SolarWinds software lifecycle, which was then signed by the legitimate SolarWinds code signing certificate. This binary, once installed, calls out to a victim-specific avsvmcloud[.]com domain using a protocol designed to mimic legitimate SolarWinds protocol traffic. After the initial check-in, the adversary can use the Domain Name System (DNS) response to selectively send back new domains or IP addresses for interactive command and control (C2) traffic. Consequently, entities that observe traffic from their SolarWinds Orion devices to avsvmcloud[.]com should not immediately conclude that the adversary leveraged the SolarWinds Orion backdoor. Instead, additional investigation is needed into whether the SolarWinds Orion device engaged in further unexplained communications. If additional Canonical Name record (CNAME) resolutions associated with the avsvmcloud[.]com domain are observed, possible additional adversary action leveraging the back door has occurred.

Based on coordinated actions by multiple private sector partners, as of December 15, 2020, avsvmcloud[.]com resolves to 20.140.0[.]1, which is an IP address on the Microsoft blocklist. This negates any future use of the implants and would have caused communications with this domain to cease. In the case of infections where the attacker has already moved C2 past the initial beacon, infection will likely continue notwithstanding this action.

SolarWinds Orion typically leverages a significant number of highly privileged accounts and access to perform normal business functions. Successful compromise of one of these systems can therefore enable further action and privileges in any environment where these accounts are trusted.

Anti-Forensic Techniques

The adversary is making extensive use of obfuscation to hide their C2 communications. The adversary is using virtual private servers (VPSs), often with IP addresses in the home country of the victim, for most communications to hide their activity among legitimate user traffic. The attackers also frequently rotate their “last mile” IP addresses to different endpoints to obscure their activity and avoid detection.

FireEye has reported that the adversary is using steganography (Obfuscated Files or Information: Steganography [T1027.003]) to obscure C2 communications.[3] This technique negates many common defensive capabilities in detecting the activity. Note: CISA has not yet been able to independently confirm the adversary’s use of this technique.

According to FireEye, the malware also checks for a list of hard-coded IPv4 and IPv6 addresses—including RFC-reserved IPv4 and IPv6 IP—in an attempt to detect if the malware is executed in an analysis environment (e.g., a malware analysis sandbox); if so, the malware will stop further execution. Additionally, FireEye analysis identified that the backdoor implemented time threshold checks to ensure that there are unpredictable delays between C2 communication attempts, further frustrating traditional network-based analysis.

While not a full anti-forensic technique, the adversary is heavily leveraging compromised or spoofed tokens for accounts for lateral movement. This will frustrate commonly used detection techniques in many environments. Since valid, but unauthorized, security tokens and accounts are utilized, detecting this activity will require the maturity to identify actions that are outside of a user’s normal duties. For example, it is unlikely that an account associated with the HR department would need to access the cyber threat intelligence database.

Taken together, these observed techniques indicate an adversary who is skilled, stealthy with operational security, and is willing to expend significant resources to maintain covert presence.

Privilege Escalation and Persistence [TA0004, TA0003]

The adversary has been observed using multiple persistence mechanisms across a variety of intrusions. CISA has observed the threat actor adding authentication tokens and credentials to highly privileged Active Directory domain accounts as a persistence and escalation mechanism. In many instances, the tokens enable access to both on-premise and hosted resources. Microsoft has released a query that can help detect this activity.[4]

Microsoft reported that the actor has added new federation trusts to existing infrastructure, a technique that CISA believes was utilized by a threat actor in an incident to which CISA has responded. Where this technique is used, it is possible that authentication can occur outside of an organization’s known infrastructure and may not be visible to the legitimate system owner. Microsoft has released a query to help identify this activity.[5]

User Impersonation

The adversary’s initial objectives, as understood today, appear to be to collect information from victim environments. One of the principal ways the adversary is accomplishing this objective is by compromising the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) signing certificate using their escalated Active Directory privileges. Once this is accomplished, the adversary creates unauthorized but valid tokens and presents them to services that trust SAML tokens from the environment. These tokens can then be used to access resources in hosted environments, such as email, for data exfiltration via authorized application programming interfaces (APIs).

CISA has observed in its incident response work adversaries targeting email accounts belonging to key personnel, including IT and incident response personnel.

These are some key functions and systems that commonly use SAML.

  • Hosted email services
  • Hosted business intelligence applications
  • Travel systems
  • Timecard systems
  • File storage services (such as SharePoint)

Detection: Impossible Logins

The adversary is using a complex network of IP addresses to obscure their activity, which can result in a detection opportunity referred to as “impossible travel.” Impossible travel occurs when a user logs in from multiple IP addresses that are a significant geographic distance apart (i.e., a person could not realistically travel between the geographic locations of the two IP addresses during the time period between the logins). Note: implementing this detection opportunity can result in false positives if legitimate users apply virtual private network (VPN) solutions before connecting into networks.

Detection: Impossible Tokens

The following conditions may indicate adversary activity.

  • Most organizations have SAML tokens with 1-hour validity periods. Long SAML token validity durations, such as 24 hours, could be unusual.
  • The SAML token contains different timestamps, including the time it was issued and the last time it was used. A token having the same timestamp for when it was issued and when it was used is not indicative of normal user behavior as users tend to use the token within a few seconds but not at the exact same time of issuance.
  • A token that does not have an associated login with its user account within an hour of the token being generated also warrants investigation.

Operational Security

Due to the nature of this pattern of adversary activity—and the targeting of key personnel, incident response staff, and IT email accounts—discussion of findings and mitigations should be considered very sensitive, and should be protected by operational security measures. An operational security plan needs to be developed and socialized, via out-of-band communications, to ensure all staff are aware of the applicable handling caveats.

Operational security plans should include:

  • Out-of-band communications guidance for staff and leadership;
  • An outline of what “normal business” is acceptable to be conducted on the suspect network;
  • A call tree for critical contacts and decision making; and
  • Considerations for external communications to stakeholders and media.

MITRE ATT&CK® Techniques

CISA assesses that the threat actor engaged in the activities described in this Alert uses the below-listed ATT&CK techniques.

  • Query Registry [T1012]
  • Obfuscated Files or Information [T1027]
  • Obfuscated Files or Information: Steganography [T1027.003]
  • Process Discovery [T1057]
  • Indicator Removal on Host: File Deletion [T1070.004]
  • Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols [T1071.001]
  • Application Layer Protocol: DNS [T1071.004]
  • File and Directory Discovery [T1083]
  • Ingress Tool Transfer [T1105]
  • Data Encoding: Standard Encoding [T1132.001]
  • Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Dependencies and Development Tools [T1195.001]
  • Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Supply Chain [T1195.002]
  • Software Discovery [T1518]
  • Software Discovery: Security Software [T1518.001]
  • Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service [T1543.003]
  • Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing [T1553.002]
  • Dynamic Resolution: Domain Generation Algorithms [T1568.002]
  • System Services: Service Execution [T1569.002]
  • Compromise Infrastructure [T1584]

Mitigations

SolarWinds Orion Owners

Owners of vulnerable SolarWinds Orion products will generally fall into one of three categories.

  • Category 1 includes those who do not have the identified malicious binary. These owners can patch their systems and resume use as determined by and consistent with their internal risk evaluations.
  • Category 2 includes those who have identified the presence of the malicious binary—with or without beaconing to avsvmcloud[.]com. Owners with malicious binary whose vulnerable appliances only unexplained external communications are with avsvmcloud[.]com—a fact that can be verified by comprehensive network monitoring for the device—can harden the device, re-install the updated software from a verified software supply chain, and resume use as determined by and consistent with a thorough risk evaluation.
  • Category 3 includes those with the binary beaconing to avsvmcloud[.]com and secondary C2 activity to a separate domain or IP address. If you observed communications with avsvmcloud[.]com that appear to suddenly cease prior to December 14, 2020— not due to an action taken by your network defenders—you fall into this category. Assume the environment has been compromised, and initiate incident response procedures immediately.

Compromise Mitigations

If the adversary has compromised administrative level credentials in an environment—or if organizations identify SAML abuse in the environment, simply mitigating individual issues, systems, servers, or specific user accounts will likely not lead to the adversary’s removal from the network. In such cases, organizations should consider the entire identity trust store as compromised. In the event of a total identity compromise, a full reconstitution of identity and trust services is required to successfully remediate. In this reconstitution, it bears repeating that this threat actor is among the most capable, and in many cases, a full rebuild of the environment is the safest action.

SolarWinds Orion Specific Mitigations

The following mitigations apply to networks using the SolarWinds Orion product. This includes any information system that is used by an entity or operated on its behalf.

Organizations that have the expertise to take the actions in Step 1 immediately should do so before proceeding to Step 2. Organizations without this capability should proceed to Step 2. Federal civilian executive branch agencies should ignore the below and refer instead to Emergency Directive 21-01 (and forthcoming associated guidance) for mitigation steps.

  • Step 1
    • Forensically image system memory and/or host operating systems hosting all instances of affected versions of SolarWinds Orion. Analyze for new user or service accounts, privileged or otherwise.
    • Analyze stored network traffic for indications of compromise, including new external DNS domains to which a small number of agency hosts (e.g., SolarWinds systems) have had connections.
  • Step 2
    • Affected organizations should immediately disconnect or power down affected all instances of affected versions of SolarWinds Orion from their network.
    • Additionally:
      • Block all traffic to and from hosts, external to the enterprise, where any version of SolarWinds Orion software has been installed.
      • Identify and remove all threat actor-controlled accounts and identified persistence mechanisms.  
  • Step 3  

See Joint Alert on Technical Approaches to Uncovering and Remediating Malicious Activity for more information on incident investigation and mitigation steps based on best practices.

CISA will update this Alert, as information becomes available and will continue to provide technical assistance, upon request, to affected entities as they work to identify and mitigate potential compromises.

Contact Information

CISA encourages recipients of this report to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. For any questions related to this report, please contact CISA at

  • 1-888-282-0870 (From outside the United States: +1-703-235-8832)
  • central@cisa.dhs.gov (UNCLASS)
  • us-cert@dhs.sgov.gov (SIPRNET)
  • us-cert@dhs.ic.gov (JWICS)

CISA encourages you to report any suspicious activity, including cybersecurity incidents, possible malicious code, software vulnerabilities, and phishing-related scams. Reporting forms can be found on the CISA/US-CERT homepage at http://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/.

Appendix A: Affected SolarWinds Orion Products

Table 1 identifies recent versions of SolarWinds Orion Platforms and indicates whether they have been identified as having the Sunburst backdoor present.

Table 1: Affected SolarWinds Orion Products

Orion Platform Version Sunburst Backdoor Code Present File Version SHA-256
2019.4 Tampered but not backdoored 2019.4.5200.8890 a25cadd48d70f6ea0c4a241d99c5241269e6faccb4054e62d16784640f8e53bc
2019.4 HF1 No 2019.4.5200.8950

9bee4af53a8cdd7ecabe5d0c77b6011abe887ac516a5a22ad51a058830403690

 

2019.4 HF2 No

2019.4.5200.8996

 

bb86f66d11592e3312cd03423b754f7337aeebba9204f54b745ed3821de6252d
2019.4 HF3 No 2019.4.5200.9001 ae6694fd12679891d95b427444466f186bcdcc79bc0627b590e0cb40de1928ad
2019.4 HF4 No 2019.4.5200.9045

9d6285db647e7eeabdb85b409fad61467de1655098fec2e25aeb7770299e9fee

 

2020.2 RC1 Yes

2020.2.100.12219

 

dab758bf98d9b36fa057a66cd0284737abf89857b73ca89280267ee7caf62f3b

 

2019.4 HF5 Yes 2019.4.5200.9083 32519b85c0b422e4656de6e6c41878e95fd95026267daab4215ee59c107d6c77
2020.2 RC2 Yes

2020.2.5200.12394

 

019085a76ba7126fff22770d71bd901c325fc68ac55aa743327984e89f4b0134

2020.2

2020.2 HF1

Yes

2020.2.5300.12432

 

ce77d116a074dab7a22a0fd4f2c1ab475f16eec42e1ded3c0b0aa8211fe858d6
2019.4 HF6 No 2019.4.5200.9106 8dfe613b00d495fb8905bdf6e1317d3e3ac1f63a626032fa2bdad4750887ee8a

2020.2.1

2020.2.1 HF1

 

No

    2020.2.15300.12766

 

143632672dcb6ef324343739636b984f5c52ece0e078cfee7c6cac4a3545403a
2020.2.1 HF2 No 2020.2.15300.12901

cc870c07eeb672ab33b6c2be51b173ad5564af5d98bfc02da02367a9e349a76f

 

 

Appendix B: Indicators of Compromise

Due to the operational security posture of the adversary, most observable IOCs are of limited utility; however, they can be useful for quick triage. Below is a compilation of IOCs from a variety of public sources provided for convenience. CISA will be updating this list with CISA developed IOCs as our investigations evolve.

Table 2: Indicators of Compromise

 IOC 

 Type   Notes   References   Source 
 32519b85c0b422e4656de6e6c41878e95fd95026267daab4215ee59c107d6c77   hash   Backdoor.Sunburst 

https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/ 

 

 a25cadd48d70f6ea0c4a241d99c5241269e6faccb4054e62d16784640f8e53bc

 hash  Backdoor.Sunburst https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-   attacks/  
 d3c6785e18fba3749fb785bc313cf8346182f532c59172b69adfb31b96a5d0af  hash  Backdoor.Sunburst https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber- attacks/  
 13.59.205[.]66  IPv4  DEFTSECURITY[.]com https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 deftsecurity[.]com  domain Domain malicious on VT, registered with  Amazon, hosted on US IP address 13.59.205.66, malware repository, spyware and malware

https://www.virustotal.com/gui/domain/deftsecurity.com/details

https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/

 Volexity
 54.193.127[.]66  IPv4 FREESCANONLINE[.]com  https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  
 ac1b2b89e60707a20e9eb1ca480bc3410ead40643b386d624c5d21b47c02917c  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 c09040d35630d75dfef0f804f320f8b3d16a481071076918e9b236a321c1ea77  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 dab758bf98d9b36fa057a66cd0284737abf89857b73ca89280267ee7caf62f3b  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 eb6fab5a2964c5817fb239a7a5079cabca0a00464fb3e07155f28b0a57a2c0ed  hash No info available https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/  
 65.153.203[.]68  IPv4 Not seen as malicious on VT, Registered in USCenturyLink Communications, LLC https://www.hybrid-analysis.com/sample/12e76c16bbf64e83b79d8dac921c9cccabbe40d28ad480c636f94a5737b77c9a?environmentId=100  
 avsvmcloud[.]com  domain Reported by FireEye/ The malicious DLL calls out to a remote network infrastructure using the domains avsvmcloud.com. to prepare possible second-stage payloads, move laterally in the organization, and compromise or exfiltrate data. Malicious on VT. Hosted on IP address 20.140.0.1, which is registered with Microsoft.  malware callhome, command and control https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/

https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber-attacks/

FireEye Report Talos

Volexity

 3.87.182[.]149  IPv4 Resolves to KUBECLOUD[.]com, IP registered to Amazon. Tracked by Insikt/RF as tied to SUNBURST intrusion activity. https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 3.16.81[.]254  IPv4 Resolves to SEOBUNDLEKIT[.]com, registered to Amazon. Tracked by Insikt/RF as tied SUNBURST intrusion activity. https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 12.227.230[.]4  IPv4 Seen as malicious on VT, Registered in US, AT&T Services, Inc https://www.hybrid-analysis.com/sample/8d34b366f4561ca1389ce2403f918e952584a56ea55876311cfb5d2aad875439  
 54.215.192[.]52  IPv4 THEDOCCLOUD[.]com https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 019085a76ba7126fff22770d71bd901c325fc68ac55aa743327984e89f4b0134  hash Trojan.MSIL.SunBurst ttps://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber- attacks/  
 ce77d116a074dab7a22a0fd4f2c1ab475f16eec42e1ded3c0b0aa8211fe858d6  hash Trojan.MSIL.SunBurst https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2020/12/13/customer-guidance-on-recent-nation-state-cyber- attacks/  
 8.18.144[.]11  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]12  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]9  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]20  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]40  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]44  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]62  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]130  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]135  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]136  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]149  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]156  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]158  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]165  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]170  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]180  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.144[.]188  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]21  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]33  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]36  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]131  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]134  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]136  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]139  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]150  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]157  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 8.18.145[.]181  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 13.27.184[.]217  IPv4    https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 18.217.225[.]111  IPv4    https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 18.220.219[.]143  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 20.141.48[.]154  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 34.219.234[.]134  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.1[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.21[.]54  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.48[.]22  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.101[.]22  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.113[.]55  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.145[.]34  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.209[.]33  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.212[.]52  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.224[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.229[.]1  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.240[.]3  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 184.72.245[.]1  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 196.203.11[.]89  IPv4   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 digitalcollege[.]org  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 freescanonline[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 globalnetworkissues[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 kubecloud[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 lcomputers[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 seobundlekit[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 solartrackingsystem[.]net  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 thedoccloud[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 virtualwebdata[.]com  domain    https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 webcodez[.]com  domain   https://www.volexity.com/blog/2020/12/14/dark-halo-leverages-solarwinds-compromise-to-breach-organizations/  Volexity
 d0d626deb3f9484e649294a8dfa814c5568f846d5aa02d4cdad5d041a29d5600  hash   https://blog.malwarebytes.com/threat-analysis/2020/12/advanced-cyber-attack-hits-private-and-public  
 c15abaf51e78ca56c0376522d699c978217bf041a3bd3c71d09193efa5717c71  hash   https://blog.malwarebytes.com/threat-analysis/2020/12/advanced-cyber-attack-hits-private-and-public  

References

Revisions

  • Initial Version: December 17, 2020

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Source de l’article sur us-cert.gov

CERTFR-2020-ALE-026 : Présence de code malveillant dans SolarWinds Orion (14 décembre 2020)

Le 13 décembre 2020, FireEye a annoncé avoir découvert une campagne d’intrusion par le biais d’une compromission de mise à jour de la plateforme de gestion et de supervision Orion de SolarWinds. Cette plate-forme a servi de vecteur pour une attaque par la chaîne d’approvisionnement …
Source de l’article sur CERT-FR

AA20-345A: Cyber Actors Target K-12 Distance Learning Education to Cause Disruptions and Steal Data

Original release date: December 10, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p>This Joint Cybersecurity Advisory was coauthored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and the Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS-ISAC).</p> <p>The FBI, CISA, and MS-ISAC assess malicious cyber actors are targeting kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) educational institutions, leading to ransomware attacks, the theft of data, and the disruption of distance learning services. Cyber actors likely view schools as targets of opportunity, and these types of attacks are expected to continue through the 2020/2021 academic year. These issues will be particularly challenging for K-12 schools that face resource limitations; therefore, educational leadership, information technology personnel, and security personnel will need to balance this risk when determining their cybersecurity investments.</p> <p><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-345A_Joint_Cybersecurity_Advisory_Distance_Learning_S508C.pdf">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><p>As of December 2020, the FBI, CISA, and MS-ISAC continue to receive reports from K-12 educational institutions about the disruption of distance learning efforts by cyber actors.</p> <h4>Ransomware</h4> <p>The FBI, CISA, and MS-ISAC have received numerous reports of ransomware attacks against K-12 educational institutions. In these attacks, malicious cyber actors target school computer systems, slowing access, and—in some instances—rendering the systems inaccessible for basic functions, including distance learning. Adopting tactics previously leveraged against business and industry, ransomware actors have also stolen—and threatened to leak—confidential student data to the public unless institutions pay a ransom.</p> <p>According to MS-ISAC data, the percentage of reported ransomware incidents against K-12 schools increased at the beginning of the 2020 school year. In August and September, 57% of ransomware incidents reported to the MS-ISAC involved K-12 schools, compared to 28% of all reported ransomware incidents from January through July.</p> <p>The five most common ransomware variants identified in incidents targeting K-12 schools between January and September 2020—based on open source information as well as victim and third-party incident reports made to MS-ISAC—are Ryuk, Maze, Nefilim, AKO, and Sodinokibi/REvil.</p> <h4>Malware</h4> <p>Figure 1 identifies the top 10 malware strains that have affected state, local, tribal, and territorial (SLTT) educational institutions over the past year (up to and including September 2020). Note: These malware variants are purely opportunistic as they not only affect educational institutions but other organizations as well.</p> <p>ZeuS and Shlayer are among the most prevalent malware affecting K-12 schools.</p> <ul> <li>ZeuS is a Trojan with several variants that targets Microsoft Windows operating systems. Cyber actors use ZeuS to infect target machines and send stolen information to command-and-control servers.</li> <li>Shlayer is a Trojan downloader and dropper for MacOS malware. It is primarily distributed through malicious websites, hijacked domains, and malicious advertising posing as a fake Adobe Flash updater. <strong>Note: </strong>Shlayer is the only malware of the top 10 that targets MacOS; the other 9 affect Microsoft Windows operating systems</li> </ul> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ee5aa08d-fe73-44e6-8f7d-4b5e6ac08320" height="275" src="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Top%2010%20Malware%20-%20K-12.png" width="614" /></p> <p class="text-align-center"><cite>Figure 1: Top 10 malware affecting SLTT educational institutions</cite></p> <h4><cite>&nbsp;</cite><br /> Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks</h4> <p>Cyber actors are causing disruptions to K-12 educational institutions—including third-party services supporting distance learning—with distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks,&nbsp; which temporarily limit or prevent users from conducting daily operations. The availability of DDoS-for-hire services provides opportunities for any motivated malicious cyber actor to conduct disruptive attacks regardless of experience level. <strong>Note:</strong> DDoS attacks overwhelm servers with a high level of internet traffic originating from many different sources, making it impossible to mitigate at a single source.</p> <h4>Video Conference Disruptions</h4> <p>Numerous reports received by the FBI, CISA, and MS-ISAC since March 2020 indicate uninvited users have disrupted live video-conferenced classroom sessions. These disruptions have included verbally harassing students and teachers, displaying pornography and/or violent images, and doxing meeting attendees (<strong>Note: </strong>doxing is the act of compiling or publishing personal information about an individual on the internet, typically with malicious intent). To enter classroom sessions, uninvited users have been observed:</p> <ul> <li>Using student names to trick hosts into accepting them into class sessions, and</li> <li>Accessing meetings from either publicly available links or links shared with outside users (e.g., students sharing links and/or passwords with friends).</li> </ul> <p>Video conference sessions without proper control measures risk disruption or compromise of classroom conversations and exposure of sensitive information.</p> <h3>Additional Risks and Vulnerabilities</h3> <p>In addition to the recent reporting of distance learning disruptions received by the FBI, CISA, and MS-ISAC, malicious cyber actors are expected to continue seeking opportunities to exploit the evolving remote learning environment.</p> <h4>Social Engineering</h4> <p>Cyber actors could apply social engineering methods against students, parents, faculty, IT personnel, or other individuals involved in distance learning. Tactics, such as phishing, trick victims into revealing personal information (e.g., password or bank account information) or performing a task (e.g., clicking on a link). In such scenarios, a victim could receive what appears to be legitimate email that:</p> <ul> <li>Requests personally identifiable information (PII) (e.g., full name, birthdate, student ID),</li> <li>Directs the user to confirm a password or personal identification number (PIN),</li> <li>Instructs the recipient to visit a website that is compromised by the cyber actor, or</li> <li>Contains an attachment with malware.</li> </ul> <p>Cyber actors also register web domains that are similar to legitimate websites in an attempt to capture individuals who mistype URLs or click on similar looking URLs. These types of attacks are referred to as domain spoofing or homograph attacks. For example, a user wanting to access <code>www.cottoncandyschool.edu</code> could mistakenly click on <code>www.cottencandyschool.edu</code> (changed “<code>o</code>” to an “<code>e</code>”) or <code>www.cottoncandyschoo1.edu</code> (changed letter “<code>l</code>” to a number “1”) (<strong>Note:</strong> this is a fictitious example to demonstrate how a user can mistakenly click and access a website without noticing subtle changes in website URLs). Victims believe they are on a legitimate website when, in reality, they are visiting a site controlled by a cyber actor.</p> <h4>Technology Vulnerabilities and Student Data</h4> <p>Whether as collateral for ransomware attacks or to sell on the dark web, cyber actors may seek to exploit the data-rich environment of student information in schools and education technology (edtech) services. The need for schools to rapidly transition to distance learning likely contributed to cybersecurity gaps, leaving schools vulnerable to attack. In addition, educational institutions that have outsourced their distance learning tools may have lost visibility into data security measures. Cyber actors could view the increased reliance on—and sharp usership growth in—these distance learning services and student data as lucrative targets.</p> <h4>Open/Exposed Ports</h4> <p>The FBI, CISA, and MS-ISAC frequently see malicious cyber actors exploiting exposed Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) services to gain initial access to a network and, often, to manually deploy ransomware. For example, cyber actors will attack ports 445 (Server Message Block [SMB]) and 3389 (RDP) to gain network access. They are then positioned to move laterally throughout a network (often using SMB), escalate privileges, access and exfiltrate sensitive information, harvest credentials, or deploy a wide variety of malware. This popular attack vector allows cyber actors to maintain a low profile, as they are using a legitimate network service that provides them with the same functionality as any other remote user.</p> <h4>End-of-Life Software</h4> <p>End-of-Life (EOL) software is regularly exploited by cyber actors—often to gain initial access, deface websites, or further their reach in a network. Once a product reaches EOL, customers no longer receive security updates, technical support, or bug fixes. Unpatched and vulnerable servers are likely to be exploited by cyber actors, hindering an organization’s operational capacity.</p> <h3>Mitigations</h3><h4>Plans and Policies</h4> <p>The FBI and CISA encourage educational providers to maintain business continuity plans—the practice of executing essential functions through emergencies (e.g., cyberattacks)—to minimize service interruptions. Without planning, provision, and implementation of continuity principles, institutions may be unable to continue teaching and administrative operations. Evaluating continuity and capability will help identify potential operational gaps. Through identifying and addressing these gaps, institutions can establish a viable continuity program that will help keep them functioning during cyberattacks or other emergencies. The FBI and CISA suggest K-12 educational institutions review or establish patching plans, security policies, user agreements, and business continuity plans to ensure they address current threats posed by cyber actors.</p> <h4>Network Best Practices</h4> <ul> <li>Patch operating systems, software, and firmware as soon as manufacturers release updates.</li> <li>Check configurations for every operating system version for educational institution-owned assets to prevent issues from arising that local users are unable to fix due to having local administration disabled.</li> <li>Regularly change passwords to network systems and accounts and avoid reusing passwords for different accounts.</li> <li>Use multi-factor authentication where possible.</li> <li>Disable unused remote access/RDP ports and monitor remote access/RDP logs.</li> <li>Implement application and remote access allow listing to only allow systems to execute programs known and permitted by the established security policy.</li> <li>Audit user accounts with administrative privileges and configure access controls with least privilege in mind.</li> <li>Audit logs to ensure new accounts are legitimate.</li> <li>Scan for open or listening ports and mediate those that are not needed.</li> <li>Identify critical assets such as student database servers and distance learning infrastructure; create backups of these systems and house the backups offline from the network.</li> <li>Implement network segmentation. Sensitive data should not reside on the same server and network segment as the email environment.</li> <li>Set antivirus and anti-malware solutions to automatically update; conduct regular scans.</li> </ul> <h4>User Awareness Best Practices</h4> <ul> <li>Focus on awareness and training. Because end users are targeted, make employees and students aware of the threats—such as ransomware and phishing scams—and how they are delivered. Additionally, provide users training on information security principles and techniques as well as overall emerging cybersecurity risks and vulnerabilities.</li> <li>Ensure employees know who to contact when they see suspicious activity or when they believe they have been a victim of a cyberattack. This will ensure that the proper established mitigation strategy can be employed quickly and efficiently.</li> <li>Monitor privacy settings and information available on social networking sites.</li> </ul> <h4>Ransomware Best Practices</h4> <p>The FBI and CISA do not recommend paying ransoms. Payment does not guarantee files will be recovered. It may also embolden adversaries to target additional organizations, encourage other criminal actors to engage in the distribution of ransomware, and/or fund illicit activities. However, regardless of whether your organization decided to pay the ransom, the FBI urges you to report ransomware incidents to your local FBI field office. Doing so provides the FBI with the critical information they need to prevent future attacks by identifying and tracking ransomware attackers and holding them accountable under U.S. law.</p> <p>In addition to implementing the above network best practices, the FBI and CISA also recommend the following:</p> <ul> <li>Regularly back up data, air gap, and password protect backup copies offline.</li> <li>Implement a recovery plan to maintain and retain multiple copies of sensitive or proprietary data and servers in a physically separate, secure location.</li> </ul> <h4>Denial-of-Service Best Practices</h4> <ul> <li>Consider enrolling in a denial-of-service mitigation service that detects abnormal traffic flows and redirects traffic away from your network.</li> <li>Create a partnership with your local internet service provider (ISP) prior to an event and work with your ISP to control network traffic attacking your network during an event.</li> <li>Configure network firewalls to block unauthorized IP addresses and disable port forwarding.</li> </ul> <h4>Video-Conferencing Best Practices</h4> <ul> <li>Ensure participants use the most updated version of remote access/meeting applications.</li> <li>Require passwords for session access.</li> <li>Encourage students to avoid sharing passwords or meeting codes.</li> <li>Establish a vetting process to identify participants as they arrive, such as a waiting room.</li> <li>Establish policies to require participants to sign in using true names rather than aliases.</li> <li>Ensure only the host controls screensharing privileges.</li> <li>Implement a policy to prevent participants from entering rooms prior to host arrival and to prevent the host from exiting prior to the departure of all participants.</li> </ul> <h4>Edtech Implementation Considerations</h4> <ul> <li>When partnering with third-party and edtech services to support distance learning, educational institutions should consider the following:</li> <li>The service provider’s cybersecurity policies and response plan in the event of a breach and their remediation practices: <ul> <li>How did the service provider resolve past cyber incidents? How did their cybersecurity practices change after these incidents?</li> </ul> </li> <li>The provider’s data security practices for their products and services (e.g., data encryption in transit and at rest, security audits, security training of staff, audit logs);</li> <li>The provider’s data maintenance and storage practices (e.g., use of company servers, cloud storage, or third-party services);</li> <li>Types of student data the provider collects and tracks (e.g., PII, academic, disciplinary, medical, biometric, IP addresses);</li> <li>Entities to whom the provider will grant access to the student data (e.g., vendors);</li> <li>How the provider will use student data (e.g., will they sell it to—or share it with—third parties for service enhancement, new product development, studies, marketing/advertising?);</li> <li>The provider’s de-identification practices for student data; and</li> <li>The provider’s policies on data retention and deletion.</li> </ul> <h4>Malware Defense</h4> <p>Table 1 identifies CISA-created Snort signatures, which have been successfully used to detect and defend against related attacks, for the malware variants listed below. <strong>Note:</strong> the listing is not fully comprehensive and should not be used at the exclusion of other detection methods.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><em>Table 1: Malware signatures</em></p> <table border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" class="general-table" style="width: 881.46px; height: 312px; margin-right: auto; margin-left: auto;"> <thead> <tr> <th scope="col" style="width: 198px;"><strong>Malware</strong></th> <th scope="col" style="width: 356px;">Signature</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td scope="col" style="width: 198px; text-align: left;"><strong>NanoCore</strong></td> <td scope="col" style="width: 356px; text-align: left;"><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"NANOCORE:HTTP GET URI contains 'FAD00979338'"; sid:00000000; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; content:"GET"; http_method; content:"getPluginName.php?PluginID=FAD00979338"; fast_pattern; http_uri; classtype:http-uri; metadata:service http;)&nbsp;</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td scope="col" style="width: 198px; text-align: left;"> <p><strong>Cerber</strong></p> </td> <td scope="col" style="width: 356px; text-align: left;"><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"HTTP Client Header contains 'host|3a 20|polkiuj.top'"; sid:00000000; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,&lt;unique_ID&gt;.tagged; content:"host|3a 20|polkiuj.top|0d 0a|"; http_header; fast_pattern:only; flowbits:set,&lt;unique_ID&gt;.tagged; tag:session,10,packets; classtype:http-header; metadata:service http;)&nbsp;</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td scope="col" style="width: 198px; text-align: left;"><strong>Kovter</strong></td> <td scope="col" style="width: 356px; text-align: left;"><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Kovter:HTTP URI POST to CnC Server"; sid:00000000; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,&lt;unique_ID&gt;.tagged; content:"POST / HTTP/1.1"; depth:15; content:"Content-Type|3a 20|application/x-www-form-urlencoded"; http_header; depth:47; fast_pattern; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|Mozilla/"; http_header; content:!"LOADCURRENCY"; nocase; content:!"Accept"; http_header; content:!"Referer|3a|"; http_header; content:!"Cookie|3a|"; nocase; http_header; pcre:"/^(?:[A-Za-z0-9+/]{4})*(?:[A-Za-z0-9+/]{2}==|[A-Za-z0-9+/]{3}=|[A-Za-z0-9+/]{4})$/P"; pcre:"/User-Agentx3a[^rn]+rnHostx3ax20(?:d{1,3}.){3}d{1,3}rnContent-Lengthx3ax20[1-5][0-9]{2,3}rn(?:Cache-Control|Pragma)x3a[^rn]+rn(?:rn)?$/H"; flowbits:set,&lt;unique_ID&gt;.tagged; tag:session,10,packets; classtype:nonstd-tcp; metadata:service http;)</code></td> </tr> <tr> <td scope="col" style="width: 198px; text-align: left;"><strong>Dridex</strong></td> <td scope="col" style="width: 356px; text-align: left;"> <p><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"HTTP URI GET contains 'invoice_########.doc' (DRIDEX)"; sid:00000000; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; content:"invoice_"; http_uri; fast_pattern:only; content:".doc"; nocase; distance:8; within:4; content:"GET"; nocase; http_method; classtype:http-uri; metadata:service http;)<br /> alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"HTTP Client Header contains 'Host|3a 20|tanevengledrep ru' (DRIDEX)"; sid:00000000; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,&lt;unique_ID&gt;.tagged; content:"Host|3a 20|tanevengledrep|2e|ru|0d 0a|"; http_header; fast_pattern:only; flowbits:set,&lt;unique_ID&gt;.tagged; tag:session,10,packets; classtype:http-header; metadata:service http;)</code></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>To report suspicious or criminal activity related to information found in this Joint Cybersecurity Advisory, contact your local FBI field office at <a href="https://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field-offices">www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field</a>. When available, please include the following information regarding the incident: date, time, and location of the incident; type of activity; number of people affected; type of equipment used for the activity; the name of the submitting organization; and a designated point of contact.</p> <p>To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:Central@cisa.gov">Central@cisa.gov</a>.</p> <h3>Resources</h3> <p>MS-ISAC membership is open to employees or representatives from all public K-12 education entities in the United States. The MS-ISAC provides multiple cybersecurity services and benefits to help K-12 education entities increase their cybersecurity posture. To join, visit <a href="https://learn.cisecurity.org/ms-isac-registration">https://learn.cisecurity.org/ms-isac-registration</a>.</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/telework">CISA Telework Guidance and Resources</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/publication/secure-video-conferencing-schools">CISA Cybersecurity Recommendations and Tips for Schools Using Video Conferencing</a></li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/Ransomware">CISA Ransomware Publications</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/emergency-services-sector-continuity-planning-suite">CISA Emergency Services Sector Continuity Planning Suite</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/publication/ransomware-guide">CISA-MS-ISAC Joint Ransomware Guide</a></li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-014">CISA Tip: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing Attacks</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-006">CISA Tip: Understanding Patches</a></li> <li><a href="https://cyber.org/cybersafety">CISA and CYBER.ORG “Cyber Safety Video Series” for K-12 students and educators</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ic3.gov/media/2019/191002.aspx">FBI PSA: “High-Impact Ransomware Attacks Threaten U.S. Businesses and Organizations</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>Note: </strong>contact your local FBI field office (<a href="http://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field">www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field</a>) for additional FBI products on ransomware, edtech, and cybersecurity for educational institutions.</p> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>Initial Version: December 10, 2020</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field–name-body field–type-text-with-summary field–label-hidden field–item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
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AA20-336A: Advanced Persistent Threat Actors Targeting U.S. Think Tanks

Original release date: December 1, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p class="tip-intro" style="font-size: 15px;"><em>This Advisory uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&amp;CK®) framework. See the <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/enterprise/">ATT&amp;CK for Enterprise</a> for all referenced threat actor tactics and techniques.</em></p> <p>The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have observed persistent continued cyber intrusions by advanced persistent threat (APT) actors targeting U.S. think tanks. This malicious activity is often, but not exclusively, directed at individuals and organizations that focus on international affairs or national security policy.[<a href="https://www.cyberscoop.com/european-think-tanks-hack-microsoft-fancy-bear-russia/">1</a>] The following guidance may assist U.S. think tanks in developing network defense procedures to prevent or rapidly detect these attacks.</p> <p>APT actors have relied on multiple avenues for initial access. These have included low-effort capabilities such as spearphishing emails and third-party message services directed at both corporate and personal accounts, as well as exploiting vulnerable web-facing devices and remote connection capabilities. Increased telework during the COVID-19 pandemic has expanded workforce reliance on remote connectivity, affording malicious actors more opportunities to exploit those connections and to blend in with increased traffic. Attackers may leverage virtual private networks (VPNs) and other remote work tools to gain initial access or persistence on a victim’s network. When successful, these low-effort, high-reward approaches allow threat actors to steal sensitive information, acquire user credentials, and gain persistent access to victim networks.</p> <p>Given the importance that think tanks can have in shaping U.S. policy, CISA and FBI urge individuals and organizations in the international affairs and national security sectors to immediately adopt a heightened state of awareness and implement the critical steps listed in the Mitigations section of this Advisory.</p> <p><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-336A-APT_Actors_Targeting_US_ThinkTanks.pdf">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h4>ATT&amp;CK Profile</h4> <p>CISA created the following MITRE ATT&amp;CK profile to provide a non-exhaustive list of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) employed by APT actors to break through think tanks’ defenses, conduct reconnaissance in their environments, exfiltrate proprietary or confidential information, and execute effects on targets. These TTPs were included based upon closed reporting on APT actors that are known to target think tanks or based upon CISA incident response data.</p> <ul> <li><em><strong>Initial Access</strong></em> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0001">TA0001</a>] <ul> <li><i>Valid Accounts </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1078/">T1078</a>]</li> <li><i>Valid Accounts: Cloud Accounts </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1078/004/">T1078.004</a>]</li> <li><i>External Remote Services </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1133/">T1133</a>]</li> <li><i>Drive-by Compromise</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1189">T1189</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploit Public-Facing Application</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1190">T1190</a>] <ul> <li><i>Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Supply Chain</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1195/002">T1195.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Trusted Relationship</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1199">T1199</a>]</li> <li><i>Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1566/001">T1566.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Phishing: Spearphishing Link</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1566/002">T1566.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Phishing: Spearphishing via Service</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1566/003">T1566.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Execution</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0002">TA0002</a>] <ul> <li><i>Windows Management Instrumentation </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1047">T1047</a>]</li> <li><i>Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1053/005">T1053.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/001">T1059.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/003">T1059.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Unix Shell</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/004">T1059.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/005">T1059.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Command and Scripting Interpreter: Python </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1059/006">T1059.006</a>]</li> <li><i>Native API </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1106">T1106</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation for Client Execution</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1203">T1203</a>]</li> <li><i>User Execution: Malicious Link </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1204/001">T1204.001</a>]</li> <li><i>User Execution: Malicious File</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1204/002">T1204.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Inter-Process Communication: Dynamic Data Exchange </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1559/002/">T1559.002</a>]</li> <li><i>System Services: Service Execution </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1569/002">T1569.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Persistence</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0003">TA0003</a>] <ul> <li><i>Boot or Logon Initialization Scripts: Logon Script (Windows)</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1037/001">T1037.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1053/005">T1053.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Account Manipulation: Exchange Email Delegate Permissions </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1098/002">T1098.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Create Account: Local Account</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1136/001">T1136.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Office Application Startup: Office Test </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1137/002">T1137.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Office Application Startup: Outlook Home Page</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1137/004">T1137.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Browser Extensions</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1176">T1176</a>]</li> <li><i>BITS Jobs</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1197/">T1197</a>]</li> <li><i>Server Software Component: Web Shell</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1505/003">T1505.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Pre-OS Boot: Bootkit</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1542/003/">T1542.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1543/003">T1543.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Change Default File Association</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/001">T1546.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/003">T1546.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/008">T1546.008</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Component Object Model Hijacking</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/015">T1546.015</a>]</li> <li><i>Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1547/001">T1547.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Shortcut Modification</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1547/009">T1547.009</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Privilege Escalation</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0004">TA0004</a>] <ul> <li><i>Process Injection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1055">T1055</a>]</li> <li><i>Process Injection: Process Hollowing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1055/012">T1055.012</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation for Privilege Escalation</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1068">T1068</a>]</li> <li><i>Access Token Manipulation: Token Impersonation/Theft</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1134/001">T1134.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1546/008">T1546.008</a>]</li> <li><i>Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Shortcut Modification</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1547/009">T1547.009</a>]</li> <li><i>Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1548/002">T1548.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Side-Loading</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1574/002">T1574.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Defense Evasion</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0005">TA0005</a>] <ul> <li><i>Rootkit</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1014">T1014</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Binary Padding </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/001">T1027.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Software Packing </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/002">T1027.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Steganography</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/003">T1027.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Obfuscated Files or Information: Indicator Removal from Tools</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1027/005">T1027.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Masquerading: Match Legitimate Name or Location</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1036/005">T1036.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Windows Event Logs</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/001">T1070.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Command History</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/003">1070.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: File Deletion</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/004">T1070.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Indicator Removal on Host: Timestomp</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1070/006">T1070.006</a>]</li> <li><i>Modify Registry</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1112">T1112</a>]</li> <li><i>Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Information </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1140">T1140</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation for Defense Evasion</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1211">T1211</a>]</li> <li><i>Signed Binary Proxy Execution: Compiled HTML File</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1218/001">T1218.001</a>]</li> <li><i><em>Signed Binary Proxy Execution: Mshta</em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1218/005">T1218.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Signed Binary Proxy Execution:<em> Rundll32 </em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1218/011">T1218.011</a>]</li> <li><i>Template Injection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1221">T1221</a>]</li> <li><i>Execution Guardrails: Environmental Keying</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1480/001">T1480.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1548/002">T1548.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Use Alternate Authentication Material: Application Access Token</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1550/001">T1550.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1553/002">T1553.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Tools</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1562/001">T1562.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify System Firewall</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1562/004">T1562.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Hide Artifacts: Hidden Files and Directories </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1564/001">T1564.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Hide Artifacts: Hidden Window</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1564/003">T1564.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Credential Access</strong></em> </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0006">TA0006</a>] <ul> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/001">T1003.001</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/002">T1003.002</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: NTDS</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/003">T1003.003</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/004">T1003.004</a>]</li> <li><i>OS Credential Dumping: Cached Domain Credentials</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1003/005">T1003.005</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Sniffing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1040">T1040</a>]</li> <li><i>Input Capture: Keylogging</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1056/001">T1056.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Brute Force: Password Cracking</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1110/002">T1110.002</a>]<i>Brute Force: Password Spraying</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1110/003">T1110.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Forced Authentication</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1187">T1187</a>]</li> <li><i>Steal Application Access Token</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1528">T1528</a>]</li> <li><i>Unsecured Credentials: Credentials in Files</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1552/001">T1552.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Unsecured Credentials: Group Policy Preferences</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1552/006">T1552.006</a>]</li> <li><i>Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1555/003">T1555.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Discovery</strong></em> </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0007">TA0007</a>] <ul> <li><i>System Service Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1007">T1007</a>]</li> <li><i>Query Registry</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1012">T1012</a>]</li> <li><i>System Network Configuration Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1016">T1016</a>]</li> <li><i>Remote System Discovery </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1018">T1018</a>]</li> <li><i>System Owner/User Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1033">T1033</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Sniffing</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1040">T1040</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Service Scanning</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1046">T1046</a>]</li> <li><i>System Network Connections Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1049">T1049</a>]</li> <li><i>Process Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1057">T1057</a>]</li> <li><i>Permission Groups Discovery: Local Groups</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1069/001">T1069.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Permission Groups Discovery: Domain Groups</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1069/002">T1069.002</a>]</li> <li><i>System Information Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1082">T1082</a>]</li> <li><i>File and Directory Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1083">T1083</a>]</li> <li><i>Account Discovery: Local Account</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1087/001">T1087.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Account Discovery: Domain Account</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1087/002">T1087.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Peripheral Device Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1120">T1120</a>]</li> <li><i>Network Share Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1135">T1135</a>]</li> <li><i>Password Policy Discovery </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1201/">T1201</a>]</li> <li><i>Software Discovery: Security Software Discovery</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1518/001">T1518.001</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Lateral Movement </strong></em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0008">TA0008</a>] <ul> <li><i>Remote Services: Remote Desktop Protocol</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1021/001">T1021.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Remote Services: SSH </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1021/004">T1021.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Taint Shared Content </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1080/">T1080</a>]</li> <li><i>Replication Through Removable Media </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1091">T1091</a>]</li> <li><i>Exploitation of Remote Services</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1210">T1210</a>]</li> <li><i>Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1550/002">T1550.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Ticket</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1550/003">T1550.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Collection</strong></em></i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0009">TA0009</a>] <ul> <li><i>Data from Local System</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1005">T1005</a>]</li> <li><i>Data from Removable Media</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1025">T1025</a>]</li> <li><i>Data Staged: Local Data Staging</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1074/001">T1074.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Screen Capture</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1113">T1113</a>]</li> <li><i>Email Collection: Local Email Collection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1114/001">T1114.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Email Collection: Remote Email Collection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1114/002">T1114.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Automated Collection</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1119">T1119</a>]</li> <li><i>Audio Capture</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1123">T1123</a>]</li> <li><i>Data from Information Repositories: SharePoint </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1213/002">T1213.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1560/001">T1560.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Archive Collected Data: Archive via Custom Method</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1560/003">T1560.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Command and Control</strong></em> </i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0011">TA0011</a>] <ul> <li><i>Data Obfuscation: Junk Data</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1001/001/">T1001.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Fallback Channels</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1008">T1008</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/001">T1071.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: File Transfer Protocols</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/002">T1071.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: Mail Protocols</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/003">T1071.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Application Layer Protocol: DNS</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1071/004">T1071.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Proxy: External Proxy</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1090/002">T1090.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Proxy: Multi-hop Proxy</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1090/003">T1090.003</a>]</li> <li><i>Proxy: Domain Fronting</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1090/004">T1090.004</a>]</li> <li><i>Communication Through Removable Media</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1092">T1092</a>]</li> <li><i>Non-Application Layer Protocol</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1095">T1095</a>]</li> <li><i>Web Service: Dead Drop Resolver</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1102/001">T1102.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Web Service: Bidirectional Communication</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1102/002">T1102.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Multi-Stage Channels</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1104">T1104</a>]</li> <li><i>Ingress Tool Transfer</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1105">T1105</a>]</li> <li><i>Data Encoding: Standard Encoding</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1132/001">T1132.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Remote Access Software</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1219">T1219</a>]</li> <li><i>Dynamic Resolution: Domain Generation Algorithms</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1568/002">T1568.002</a>]</li> <li><i>Non-Standard Port</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1571">T1571</a>]</li> <li><i>Protocol Tunneling</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1572">T1572</a>]</li> <li><i>Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1573/001">T1573.001</a>]</li> <li><i>Encrypted Channel: Asymmetric Cryptography</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1573/002">T1573.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span>Exfiltration</strong> </em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0010">TA0010</a>] <ul> <li><i>Exfiltration Over C2 Channel</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1041">T1041</a>]</li> <li><i>Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol: Exfiltration Over Unencrypted/Obfuscated Non-C2 Protocol</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1048/003">T1048.003</a>]</li> </ul> </li> <li><i><em><strong>Impact </strong></em></i>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/tactics/TA0040">TA0040</a>] <ul> <li><i>Data Encrypted for Impact</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1486">T1486</a>]</li> <li><i>Resource Hijacking</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1496">T1496</a>]</li> <li><i>System Shutdown/Reboot</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1529">T1529</a>]</li> <li><i>Disk Wipe: Disk Structure Wipe</i> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/versions/v7/techniques/T1561/002">T1561.002</a>]</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>CISA and FBI recommend think tank organizations apply the following critical practices to strengthen their security posture.</p> <h4>Leaders</h4> <ul> <li>Implement a training program to familiarize users with identifying social engineering techniques and phishing emails.</li> </ul> <h4>Users/Staff</h4> <ul> <li>Log off remote connections when not in use.</li> <li>Be vigilant against tailored spearphishing attacks targeting corporate and personal accounts (including both email and social media accounts).</li> <li>Use different passwords for corporate and personal accounts.</li> <li>Install antivirus software on personal devices to automatically scan and quarantine suspicious files.</li> <li>Employ strong multi-factor authentication for personal accounts, if available.</li> <li>Exercise caution when: <ul> <li>Opening email attachments, even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-010">Using Caution with Email Attachments</a>.</li> <li>Using removable media (e.g., USB thumb drives, external drives, CDs).</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h4>IT Staff/Cybersecurity Personnel</h4> <ul> <li>Segment and segregate networks and functions.</li> <li>Change the default username and password of applications and appliances.</li> <li>Employ strong multi-factor authentication for corporate accounts.</li> <li>Deploy antivirus software on organizational devices to automatically scan and quarantine suspicious files.</li> <li>Apply encryption to data at rest and data in transit.</li> <li>Use email security appliances to scan and remove malicious email attachments or links.</li> <li>Monitor key internal security tools and identify anomalous behavior. Flag any known indicators of compromise or threat actor behaviors for immediate response.</li> <li>Organizations can implement mitigations of varying complexity and restrictiveness to reduce the risk posed by threat actors who use Tor (The Onion Router) to carry out malicious activities. See the CISA-FBI Joint Cybersecurity Advisory on <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-183a">Defending Against Malicious Cyber Activity Originating from Tor</a> for mitigation options and additional information.</li> <li>Prevent exploitation of known software vulnerabilities by routinely applying software patches and upgrades. Foreign cyber threat actors continue to exploit publicly known—and often dated—software vulnerabilities against broad target sets, including public and private sector organizations. If these vulnerabilities are left unpatched, exploitation often requires few resources and provides threat actors with easy access to victim networks. Review CISA and FBI’s <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-133a">Top 10 Routinely Exploited Vulnerabilities</a> and other CISA alerts that identify vulnerabilities exploited by foreign attackers.</li> <li>Implement an antivirus program and a formalized patch management process.</li> <li>Block certain websites and email attachments commonly associated with malware (e.g., .scr, .pif, .cpl, .dll, .exe).</li> <li>Block email attachments that cannot be scanned by antivirus software (e.g., .zip files).</li> <li>Implement Group Policy Object and firewall rules.</li> <li>Implement filters at the email gateway and block suspicious IP addresses at the firewall.</li> <li>Routinely audit domain and local accounts as well as their permission levels to look for situations that could allow an adversary to gain wide access by obtaining credentials of a privileged account.</li> <li>Follow best practices for design and administration of the network to limit privileged account use across administrative tiers.</li> <li>Implement a Domain-Based Message Authentication, Reporting &amp; Conformance (DMARC) validation system.</li> <li>Disable or block unnecessary remote services.</li> <li>Limit access to remote services through centrally managed concentrators.</li> <li>Deny direct remote access to internal systems or resources by using network proxies, gateways, and firewalls.</li> <li>Limit unnecessary lateral communications.</li> <li>Disable file and printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.</li> <li>Ensure applications do not store sensitive data or credentials insecurely.</li> <li>Enable a firewall on agency workstations, configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.</li> <li>Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.</li> <li>Scan for and remove suspicious email attachments; ensure any scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).</li> <li>Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to suspicious or risky sites. Contact law enforcement or CISA immediately regarding any unauthorized network access identified.</li> <li>Visit the MITRE ATT&amp;CK techniques and tactics pages linked in the ATT&amp;CK Profile section above for additional mitigation and detection strategies for this malicious activity targeting think tanks.</li> </ul> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>Recipients of this report are encouraged to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. To report suspicious or criminal activity related to information found in this Joint Cybersecurity Advisory, contact your local FBI field office at <a href="http://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field">www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field</a>, or the FBI’s 24/7 Cyber Watch (CyWatch) at (855) 292-3937 or by email at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:CyWatch@fbi.gov">CyWatch@fbi.gov</a>. When available, please include the following information regarding the incident: date, time, and location of the incident; type of activity; number of people affected; type of equipment used for the activity; the name of the submitting company or organization; and a designated point of contact. To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:Central@cisa.gov">Central@cisa.gov</a>.</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-120a">CISA Alert: Microsoft Office 365 Security Recommendations</a></li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-245a">CISA Alert: Technical Approaches to Uncovering and Remediating Malicious Activity</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/telework">CISA Webpage: Telework Guidance</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/vpn-related-guidance">CISA Webpage: VPN-Related Guidance</a></li> <li><a href="http://image.communications.cyber.nj.gov/lib/fe3e15707564047c7c1270/m/2/PIN+-+4.9.2020.pdf">FBI Private Industry Notification: PIN 20200409-001</a></li> </ul> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.cyberscoop.com/european-think-tanks-hack-microsoft-fancy-bear-russia/">[1] CyberScoop: As Europe prepares to vote, Microsoft warns of Fancy Bear attacks on democratic think tanks</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>Initial Version: December 1, 2020</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field–name-body field–type-text-with-summary field–label-hidden field–item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
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