The NonNullable type is a utility type in TypeScript that creates a new type, whilst removing all null or undefined elements. It lets us take existing types, and modify them so they are more suitable in certain situations. Let’s look at how it works.

Custom Types

This article covers custom types. To learn more about custom types, read my guide about it here.

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In part 1, we introduced Instancio and how it can be used to automate data setup in unit tests. To recap, Instancio is a library that automates data setup in unit tests, with the goal of reducing manual data setup. More specifically, it accepts a class (or a « type token ») as an argument and returns a fully-populated instance of the class. Sticking to our Person class for all our examples, this can be done as follows:



Person person = Instancio.create(Person.class); Map<UUID, Person> person = Instancio.create(new TypeToken<Map<UUID, Person>>() {});

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The 2021 RT-Thread IoT OS Tech Conference has 1500+ developers registered for the conference, over 20 topics were shared, featured on the open-source RT-Thread OS projects and the new development RT-Smart Micro-Kernel OS, RISC-V ecosystems and associated manufacturers introduced, STM32 ecosystems, embedded projects showcase, IoT security, trending technical knowledge such as AI, ROS, Rust, Micropython, and more!

The 2022 RT-Thread IoT OS Global Tech Conference will continue kicking off with unique insights, exciting innovative technologies, inspiring projects showcases.

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“At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly” — Agile Manifesto

Self-reflection within teams is fundamental to enabling Agile ways of working. Let’s take the most common Agile methodology, Scrum. This framework prescribes five events, one of which is the retrospective.

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Companies in virtually all industries use the information to some extent. Often, most of an organization’s operations revolve around collecting and analyzing it. Of course, most people in modern society know and accept that, but they assert that businesses must do whatever’s necessary to keep data safe. 

Recent data privacy report statistics show a high demand for people who have the training to keep information secure. As a result, they often have multiple offers to the field, even though statistics about the U.S. job market indicate the per-month growth may be becoming less robust.

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Thanks to services provided by AWS, GCP, and Azure it’s become relatively easy to develop applications that span multiple regions. This is great because slow apps kill businesses. There is one common problem with these applications: they are not supported by multi-region database architecture.

In this blog, I will provide a solution for the problem of getting Kubernetes pods to talk to each other in multi-region deployments.

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Before diving into debugging memory issues and the other amazing running process, memory debugging capabilities (which are amazing)… I want to discuss a point I left open in the last duckling post. Back there we discussed customizing the watch renderer. This is super cool!

But it’s also tedious. Before we continue, if you prefer, I cover most of these subjects in these videos:

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There are a good number of articles that articulate functional differences between HashMap, Hashtable, and ConcurrentHashMap. This post compares the performance behavior of these data structures through practical examples. If you don’t have the patience to read the entire post, here is the bottom line: when you are confronted with the decision of whether to use HashMap, Hashtable, or ConcurrentHashMap, consider using ConcurrentHashMap since it’s thread-safe implementation without compromise in performance.

Performance Study

 To study the performance characteristics, I have put together this sample program:

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Some believe that experienced developers do not make silly errors. Comparison errors? Dereferencing null references? Bet you think: « No, it’s definitely not about me… » ;) By the way, what about errors with sorting? As the title suggests, there are some nuances.


Let me give you an example to describe the problem. Let’s say we have some type (Wrapper) with two integer properties (Primary and Secondary). There’s an array of instances of this type. We need to sort it in ascending order. First — by the primary key, then — by the secondary key.

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Thread debugging has the reputation of being one of the most arduous tasks for developers. I beg to differ. Asynchronous debugging is so much worse. It’s supposed to solve threading problems, and to some degree, async helps… But it doesn’t make debugging simpler. I will get into that in the next post.

Today we’ll discuss the process of debugging threading issues and dealing with deadlocks and race conditions in the debugger.

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